Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, 59:99 | Cite as

3D Measurements of coupled freestream turbulence and secondary flow effects on film cooling

  • David S. Ching
  • Haosen H. A. Xu
  • Christopher J. Elkins
  • John K. Eaton
Research Article
  • 141 Downloads

Abstract

The effect of freestream turbulence on a single round film cooling hole is examined at two turbulence levels of 5 and 8% and compared to a baseline low freestream turbulence case. The hole is inclined at 30\(^{\circ }\) and has length to diameter ratio \(L/D=4\) and unity blowing ratio. Turbulence is generated with grid upstream of the hole in the main channel. The three-dimensional, three-component mean velocity field is acquired with magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) and the three-dimensional temperature field is acquired with magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT). The 8% turbulence grid produces weak mean secondary flows in the mainstream (peak crossflow velocities are 7% of \(U_\mathrm{bulk}\)) which push the jet close to the wall and significantly change the adiabatic effectiveness distribution. By contrast, the 5% grid has a simpler structure and does not produce a measurable secondary flow structure. The grid turbulence causes little change to the temperature field, indicating that the turbulence generated in the shear layers around the jet dominates the freestream turbulence. The results suggest that secondary flows induced by complex turbulence generators may have caused some of the contradictory results in previous works.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was made possible with support from Honeywell Aerospace. We are grateful to Jan F. Heyse for his contributions to the project

References

  1. Benson MJ, Elkins CJ, Eaton JK (2011) Measurements of 3D velocity and scalar field for a film-cooled airfoil trailing edge. Exp Fluids 51(2):443–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bogard D, Thole K (2006) Gas turbine film cooling. J Propuls Power 22(2):249–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bons J, MacArthur C, Rivir R (1994) The effect of high freestream turbulence on film cooling effectiveness. In: ASME 1994 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, ASMEGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown A, Saluja C (1979) Film cooling from a single hole and a row of holes of variable pitch to diameter ratio. Int J Heat Mass Transf 22(4):525–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burd SW, Kaszeta RW, Simon TW (1998) Measurements in film cooling flows: hole L/D and turbulence intensity effects. J Turbomach 120(4):791–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen AF, Li SJ, Han JC (2015) Film cooling for cylindrical and fan-shaped holes using pressure-sensitive paint measurement technique. J Thermophys Heat Transf 29(4):775–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Colban W, Lethander A, Thole K, Zess G (2003a) Combustor turbine interface studies: part 2 - Flow and thermal field measurements. J Turbomach 125:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colban W, Thole K, Zess G (2003b) Combustor turbine interface studies: part 2- Endwall effectiveness measurements. J Turbomach 125:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Colban W, Thole KA, Haendler M (2008) A comparison of cylindrical and fan-shaped film-cooling holes on a vane endwall at low and high freestream turbulence levels. J Turbomach 130(3):031,007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coletti F, Elkins CJ, Eaton JK (2013) An inclined jet in crossflow under the effect of streamwise pressure gradients. Exp Fluids 54(9):1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elkins CJ, Alley MT (2007) Magnetic resonance velocimetry: applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the measurement of fluid motion. Exp Fluids 43(6):823–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haldeman C, Mathison R, Dunn M, Southworth S, Harral J, Heitland G (2008) Aerodynamic and heat flux measurements in a single-stage fully cooled turbine–Part I: experimental approach. J Turbomach 130(2):021,015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Harrison KL, Bogard DG (2008) Comparison of RANS turbulence models for prediction of film cooling performance. ASME paper no GT2008-51423Google Scholar
  14. Jumper G, Elrod W, Rivir R (1991) Film cooling effectiveness in high-turbulence flow. J Turbomach 113(3):479–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kadotani K, Goldstein R (1979a) On the nature of jets entering a turbulent flow part A: jet-mainstream interaction. J Eng Power 101:459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kadotani K, Goldstein R (1979b) On the nature of jets entering a turbulent flow part B film cooling performance. J Eng Power 101:466–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kays WM, Crawford ME, Weigand B (2012) Convective heat and mass transfer. McGraw-Hill Education, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Kingery J, Ames F (2016) Full coverage shaped-hole film cooling in an accelerating boundary layer with high freestream turbulence. J Turbomach 138(7):071,002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kohli A, Bogard DG (1998) Effects of very high free-stream turbulence on the jet-mainstream interaction in a film cooling flow. J Turbomach 120:785–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kohli A, Bogard DG (2005) Turbulent transport in film cooling flows. J Heat Transfer 127(5):513–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mayhew JE, Baughn JW, Byerley AR (2003) The effect of freestream turbulence on film cooling adiabatic effectiveness. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 24(5):669–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nicklas M (2001) Film-cooled turbine endwall in a transonic flow field: part II—heat transfer and film-cooling effectiveness. J Turbomach 123(4):720–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ryan KJ (2016) Three-dimensional velocity and concentration measurements of turbulent mixing in discrete hole film cooling flows. PhD thesis, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  24. Ryan KJ, Coletti F, Elkins CJ, Eaton JK (2015) Building block experiments in discrete hole film cooling. In: ASME Turbo Expo 2015: turbine Technical Conference and Exposition, American Society of Mechanical EngineersGoogle Scholar
  25. Saumweber C, Schulz A, Wittig S (2002) Free-stream turbulence effects on film cooling with shaped holes. In: ASME Turbo Expo 2002: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, pp 41–49Google Scholar
  26. Sayles EL, Eaton JK (2016) Validation of magnetic resonance concentration measurements with adiabatic wall temperature measurements. Exp Fluids 57(12):193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schiavazzi D, Coletti F, Iaccarino G, Eaton JK (2014) A matching pursuit approach to solenoidal filtering of three-dimensional velocity measurements. J Comput Phys 263:206–221MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Schmidt DL, Bogard DG (1996) Effects of free-stream turbulence and surface roughness on film cooling. In: ASME 1996 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition, ASME, pp V004T09A049–V004T09A049Google Scholar
  29. Schroeder RP, Thole KA (2016) Effect of high freestream turbulence on flowfields of shaped film cooling holes. J Turbomach 138(9):091,001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schroeder RP, Thole KA (2017) Thermal field measurements for a shaped hole at low and high freestream turbulence intensity. J Turbomach 139(2):021,012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Spirnak J, Smaland M, Tremont B, McQuirter A, Williams E, Benson M, Van Poppel B, VerHulst C, Elkins C, Burton L, Eaton J, Owkes M (2016) Validation of magnetic resonance thermometry through experimental and computational approaches. In: 52nd AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  32. Thole K, Bogard D, Whan-Tong J (1994) Generating high freestream turbulence levels. Exp Fluids 17(6):375–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Werschnik H, Krichbaum A, Schiffer H, Lehmann K (2015) The influence of combustor swirl on turbine stator endwall heat transfer and film cooling effectiveness in a 1.5-stage axial turbine. ISABE, ISABE Paper(2015-20184)Google Scholar
  34. Werschnik H, Hilgert J, Wilhelm M, Bruschewski M, Schiffer HP (2017) Influence of combustor swirl on endwall heat transfer and film cooling effectiveness at the large scale turbine rig. J Turbomach 139(8):081,007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wright LM, McClain ST, Clemenson MD (2011) Effect of freestream turbulence intensity on film cooling jet structure and surface effectiveness using PIV and PSP. J Turbomach 133(4):041,023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xiao J, Travis J, Breitung W (2009) Non-Boussinesq integral model for horizontal turbulent buoyant round jets. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations 2009Google Scholar
  37. Yapa SD, Datri JL, Schoech JM, Elkins CJ, Eaton JK (2014) Comparison of magnetic resonance concentration measurements in water to temperature measurements in compressible air flows. Exp Fluids 55(11):1834Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Flow Physics and Computational Engineering, Department of Mechanical EngineeringStanford UniversityCAUSA

Personalised recommendations