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Detection of small-amplitude periodic surface pressure fluctuation by pressure-sensitive paint measurements using frequency-domain methods

Abstract

Image measurement using pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an effective tool for analyzing the unsteady pressure field on the surface of a body in a low-speed air flow, which is associated with wind noise. In this study, the surface pressure fluctuation due to the tonal trailing edge (TE) noise for a two-dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil was quantitatively detected using a porous anodized aluminum PSP (AA-PSP). The emission from the PSP upon illumination by a blue laser diode was captured using a 12-bit high-speed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera. The intensities of the captured images were converted to pressures using a standard intensity-based method. Three image-processing methods based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) were tested to determine their efficiency in improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the unsteady PSP data. In addition to two fundamental FFT techniques (the full data and ensemble averaging FFTs), a technique using the coherent output power (COP), which involves the cross correlation between the PSP data and the signal measured using a pointwise sound-level meter, was tested. Preliminary tests indicated that random photon shot noise dominates the intensity fluctuations in the captured PSP emissions above 200 Hz. Pressure fluctuations associated with the TE noise, whose dominant frequency is approximately 940 Hz, were successfully measured by analyzing 40,960 sequential PSP images recorded at 10 kfps. Quantitative validation using the power spectrum indicates that the COP technique is the most effective method of identification of the pressure fluctuation directly related to TE noise. It is possible to distinguish power differences with a resolution of 10 Pa\(^2\) (4 Pa in amplitude) when the COP was employed without use of another wind-off data. This resolution cannot be achieved by the ensemble averaging FFT because of an insufficient elimination of the background noise.

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Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by JSPS KAKENHI under Grant numbers 2528929 and 16H04265.

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Correspondence to Masaharu Kameda.

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Noda, T., Nakakita, K., Wakahara, M. et al. Detection of small-amplitude periodic surface pressure fluctuation by pressure-sensitive paint measurements using frequency-domain methods. Exp Fluids 59, 94 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-018-2550-z

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