Experiments in Fluids

, 58:164 | Cite as

An experimental study on the cavitation of water with dissolved gases

Research Article


Cavitation inception is generally determined by the tensile strengths of liquids. Investigations on the tensile strength of water, which is essential in many fields, will help understand the promotion/prevention of cavitation and related applications in water. Previous experimental studies, however, vary in their conclusions about the value of tensile strength of water; the difference is commonly attributed to the existence of impurities in water. Dissolved gases, especially oxygen and nitrogen from the air, are one of the most common kinds of impurities in water. The influence of these gases on the tensile strength of water is still unclear. This study investigated the effects of dissolved gases on water cavitation through experiments. Cavitation in water is generated by acoustic method. Water samples are prepared with dissolved oxygen and nitrogen in different gas concentrations. Results show that under the same temperature, the tensile strength of water with dissolved oxygen or nitrogen decreases with increased gas concentration compared with that of ultrapure water. Under the same gas concentration and temperature, water with dissolved oxygen shows a lower tensile strength than that with dissolved nitrogen. Possible reasons of these results are also discussed.



Experiments in this work are supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51476085 and 51621062).


  1. Atchley AA, Prosperetti A (1989) The crevice model of bubble nucleation. J Acoust Soc Am 86:1065–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bader KB, Raymond JL, Mobley J, Church CC, Gaitan DF (2012) The effect of static pressure on the inertial cavitation threshold. J Acoust Soc Am 132:728–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Battistoni M, Grimaldi CN (2012) Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels. Appl Energy 97:656–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Battistoni M, Duke DJ, Swantek AB, Tilocco FZ, Powell CF, Som S (2015) Effects of noncondensable gas on cavitating nozzles. Atomization Sprays. Google Scholar
  5. Brennen CE (2013) Cavitation and bubble dynamics. Cambridge University Press, LondonCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Caupin F, Herbert E (2006) Cavitation in water: a review. Comptes Rendus Physique 7:1000–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caupin F, Arvengas A, Davitt K, Azouzi MEM, Shmulovich KI, Ramboz C, Sessoms DA, Stroock AD (2012) Exploring water and other liquids at negative pressure. J Phys 24:284110Google Scholar
  8. Chen Y-H, Chu H-Y, Lin I (2006) Interaction and fragmentation of pulsed laser induced microbubbles in a narrow gap. Phys Rev Lett 96:034505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davitt K, Arvengas A, Caupin F (2010) Water at the cavitation limit: density of the metastable liquid and size of the critical bubble. EPL (Europhysics Letters) 90:16002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duke DJ, Kastengren AL, Tilocco FZ, Swantek AB, Powell CF (2013a) X-ray radiography measurements of cavitating nozzle flow. Atomization Sprays. Google Scholar
  11. Duke DJ, Schmidt DP, Neroorkar K, Kastengren AL, Powell CF (2013b) High-resolution large eddy simulations of cavitating gasoline–ethanol blends. Int J Engine Res 14:578–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duke DJ, Kastengren AL, Swantek AB, Matusik KE, Powell CF (2016) X-ray fluorescence measurements of dissolved gas and cavitation. Exp Fluids 57:162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Epstein CEP, Plesset MS (1950) On the stability of gas bubbles in liquid-gas solutions. J Chem Phys 18:1505–1509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eskin G (2001) Broad prospects for commercial application of the ultrasonic (cavitation) melt treatment of light alloys. Ultrason Sonochem 8:319–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gu Y, Li B, Chen M (2016) An experimental study on the cavitation of water with effects of SiO2 nanoparticles. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 79:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harrison M (1952) An experimental study of single bubble cavitation noise. J Acoust Soc Am 24:776–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hellman AN, Rau KR, Yoon HH, Bae S, Palmer JF, Phillips KS, Allbritton NL, Venugopalan V (2007) Laser-induced mixing in microfluidic channels. Anal Chem 79:4484–4492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Herbert E, Balibar S, Caupin F (2006) Cavitation pressure in water. Phys Rev E 74:041603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huygens C (1672) Extrait d’une lettre de M. Hugens de l’Académie Royale des Sciences à l’auteur de ce journal, touchant les phénomènes de l’eau purgée d’air, J. des Sçavants, 25 juillet 1672; partial English translation. Phil Trans 7:5027–5030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krishna PD, Shankar PM, Newhouse VL (1999) Subharmonic generation from ultrasonic contrast agents. Phys Med Biol 44:681–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuksin AY, Norman G, Pisarev VV, Stegailov VV, Yanilkin AVE (2010) A kinetic model of fracture of simple liquids. High Temp 48:511–517Google Scholar
  22. Kuksin AY, Norman G, Pisarev V, Stegailov V, Yanilkin A (2010b) Theory and molecular dynamics modeling of spall fracture in liquids. Phys Rev B 82:174101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kunz RF, Boger DA, Stinebring DR, Chyczewski TS, Lindau JW, Gibeling HJ, Venkateswaran S, Govindan T (2000) A preconditioned Navier-Stokes method for two-phase flows with application to cavitation prediction. Comput Fluids 29:849–875CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. Liebermann L (1957) Air bubbles in water. J Appl Phys 28:205–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mäkiharju SA, Ganesh H, Ceccio SL (2017) The dynamics of partial cavity formation, shedding and the influence of dissolved and injected non-condensable gas. J Fluid Mech 829:420–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maxwell AD, Cain CA, Hall TL, Fowlkes JB, Xu Z (2013) Probability of cavitation for single ultrasound pulses applied to tissues and tissue-mimicking materials. Ultrasound Med Biol 39:449–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ohl C-D, Arora M, Dijkink R, Janve V, Lohse D (2006) Surface cleaning from laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Appl Phys Lett 89:074102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Philipp A, Lauterborn W (1998) Cavitation erosion by single laser-produced bubbles. J Fluid Mech 361:75–116CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. Plesset M, Zwick SA (1954) The growth of vapor bubbles in superheated liquids. J Appl Phys 25:493–500MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. Quinto-Su PA, Ando K (2013) Nucleating bubble clouds with a pair of laser-induced shocks and bubbles. J Fluid Mech 733:R3CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. Reid RC, Sherwood TK, Street RE (1977) The properties of gases and liquids. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Rooze J, Rebrov EV, Schouten JC, Keurentjes JT (2013) Dissolved gas and ultrasonic cavitation–a review. Ultrason Sonochem 20:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roy RA, Madanshetty SI, Apfel RE (1990) An acoustic backscattering technique for the detection of transient cavitation produced by microsecond pulses of ultrasound. J Acoust Soc Am 87:2451–2458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Russell S, Sheehan G (1974) Effect of entrained air on cavitation damage. Can J Civ Eng 1:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sehgal C, Sutherland R, Verrall R (1980a) Sonoluminescence of nitric oxide-and nitrogen dioxide-saturated water as a probe of acoustic cavitation. J Phys Chem 84:396–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sehgal C, Sutherland R, Verrall R (1980b) Optical spectra of sonoluminescence from transient and stable cavitation in water saturated with various gases. J Phys Chem 84:388–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stride EP, Coussios CC (2010) Cavitation and contrast: the use of bubbles in ultrasound imaging and therapy. Proc Inst Mech Eng H 224:171–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stride E, Saffari N (2003) Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents: a review. Proc Inst Mech Eng H 217:429–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sugimoto K, Fujiwara H, Koda S (2004) Raman spectroscopic study on the local structure around O2 in supercritical water. J Supercrit Fluids 32:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sviridov AP, Osminkina LA, Nikolaev AL, Kudryavtsev AA, Vasiliev AN, Timoshenko VY (2015) Lowering of the cavitation threshold in aqueous suspensions of porous silicon nanoparticles for sonodynamic therapy applications. Appl Phys Lett 107:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Trevena DH (1987) Cavitation and tension in liquids. Adam Hilger, BristolGoogle Scholar
  42. Wu J-H, Chao L (2011) Effects of entrained air manner on cavitation damage. J Hydrodyn Ser B 23:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zwaan E, Le Gac S, Tsuji K, Ohl C-D (2007) Controlled cavitation in microfluidic systems. Phys Rev Lett 98:254501CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Engineering MechanicsTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations