Experiments in Fluids

, 58:16 | Cite as

Three-dimensional microscopic light field particle image velocimetry

  • Tadd T. TruscottEmail author
  • Jesse Belden
  • Rui Ni
  • Jonathon Pendlebury
  • Bryce McEwen
Research Article


A microscopic particle image velocimetry (\(\mu \text {PIV}\)) technique is developed based on light field microscopy and is applied to flow through a microchannel containing a backward-facing step. The only hardware difference from a conventional \(\mu\)PIV setup is the placement of a microlens array at the intermediate image plane of the microscope. The method combines this optical hardware alteration with post-capture computation to enable 3D reconstruction of particle fields. From these particle fields, we measure three-component velocity fields, but find that accurate velocity measurements are limited to the two in-plane components at discrete depths through the volume (i.e., 2C-3D). Results are compared with a computational fluid dynamics simulation.


Particle Image Velocimetry Point Spread Function Light Field Particle Tracking Velocimetry Microlens Array 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1126862. JB gratefully acknowledges funding from the Office of Naval Research under task number N0001413WX20545 monitored by program officer Dr. Ronald Joslin (ONR Code 333).


  1. Belden J, Pendlebury J, Jafek A, Truscott TT (2014) Advances in light field imaging for measurement of fluid mechanical systems. Dynamic data-driven environmental systems science (DyDESS) conferenceGoogle Scholar
  2. Belden J, Truscott TT, Axiak MC, Techet AH (2010) Three-dimensional synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry. Meas Sci Technol 21:125403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bown MR, MacInnes JM, Allen RWK, Zimmerman WBJ (2006) Three-dimensional, three-component velocity measurements using stereoscopic micro-piv and ptv. Meas Sci Technol 17:2175–2185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen S, Angarita-Jaimes N, Angarita-Jaimes D, Pelc B, Greenaway AH, Towers CE, Lin D, Towers DP (2009) Wavefront sensing for three-component three-dimensional flow velocimetry in microfluidics. Exp Fluids 47(4–5):849–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cierpka C, Segura R, Hain R, Kähler C (2010) A simple single camera 3c3d velocity measurement technique without errors due to depth of correlation and spatial averaging for microfluidics. Meas Sci Technol 21(4):045401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cierpka C, Kaehler CJ (2012) Particle imaging techniques for volumetric three-component (3d3c) velocity measurements in microfluidics. J Vis 15:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Elsinga GE, Scarano F, Wieneke B (2006) Tomographic particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 41(6):933–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fouras A, Jacono DL, Nguyen CV, Hourigan K (2009) Volumetric correlation piv: a new technique for 3d velocity vector field measurement. Exp Fluids 47:569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Galbraith W (1955) The optical measurement of depth. Q J Microsc Sci 3(35):285–288Google Scholar
  10. Kähler CJ, Scharnowski S, Cierpka C (2012) On the uncertainty of digital piv and ptv near walls. Exp Fluids 52:1641–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim H, Grosse S, Elsinga G, Westerweel J (2011) Full 3d–3c velocity measurement inside a liquid immersion droplet. Exp Fluids 51:395–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim H, Westerweel J, Elsinga GE (2012) Comparison of tomo-piv and 3d-ptv for microfluidic flows. Meas Sci Technol 24(2):024007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Levoy M (2006) Light fields and computational imaging. IEEE Comput 39(8):46–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Levoy M, Hanrahan P (1996) Light field rendering. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp 31–42Google Scholar
  15. Levoy M, Ng R, Adams A, Footer M, Horowitz M (2006) Light field microscopy. ACM Trans Graph 25(3):924–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lima R, Wada S, Tanaka S, Takeda M, Ishikawa T, Tsubota KI, Imai Y, Yamaguchi T (2007) In vitro blood flow in a rectangular pdms microchannel: experimental observations using a confocal micro-piv system. Biomed Microdev 10(2):153–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lindken R, Westerweel J, Wieneke B (2006) Stereoscopic micro particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 41:161–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lindken R, Rossi M, Grosse S, Westerweel J (2009) Micro-particle image velocimetry: recent developments, applications, and guidlines. Lab Chip 9:2551–2567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lynch K (2011) Development of a 3-d fluid velocimetry technique based on light field imaging. Master’s thesis, Auburn UniversityGoogle Scholar
  20. Lynch K, Fahringer T, Thurow B (2012) Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry using a plenoptic camera. In: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. Nashville, TNGoogle Scholar
  21. Ng R, Levoy M, Bredif M, Duval G, Horowitz M, Hanrahan P (2005) Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera. Stanford Tech ReportGoogle Scholar
  22. Ooms T, Lindken R, Westerweel J (2009) Digital holographic microscopy applied to measurement of a flow in a t-shaped micromixer. Exp Fluids 47(6):941–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Park JS, Choi CK, Kihm KD (2004) Optically sliced micro-piv using confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm). Exp Fluids 37:105–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pereira F, Gharib M (2002) Defocusing digital particle image velocimetry and the three-dimensional characterization of two-phase flows. Meas Sci Technol 13(5):683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pereira F, Gharib M, Dabiri D, Modarress D (2000) Defocusing digital particle image velocimetry: a 3-component 3-dimensional dpiv measurement technique. Application to bubbly flows. Exp Fluids 29(1):S078–S084Google Scholar
  26. Pereira F, Lu J, Castano-Graff E, Gharib M (2007) Microscale 3d flow mapping with \(\mu\)ddpiv. Exp fluids 42(4):589–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peterson SD, Chuang H-S, Wereley ST (2008) Three-dimensional particle tracking using micro-particle image velocimetry hardware. Meas Sci Technol 19(11):115406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sveen KJ (2004) An introduction to MatPIV v.1.6.1 Preprint series. Mechanics and Applied MathematicsGoogle Scholar
  29. Sheng J, Malkiel E, Katz J (2006) Digital holographic microscope for measuring three-dimensional particle distributions and motions. Appl Opt 45(16):3893–3901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sibarita J-B (2005) Deconvolution microscopy. Adv Biochem Eng/Biotechnol 95:1288–1292Google Scholar
  31. SplashLab (2014) Synthetic aperture imaging.
  32. Tien W-H, Kartes P, Yamasaki T, Dabiri D (2008) A color-coded backlighted defocusing digital particle image velocimetry system. Exp Fluids 44(6):1015–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tien W-H, Dabiri D, Hove JR (2014) Color-coded three-dimensional micro particle tracking velocimetry and application to micro backward-facing step flows. Exp Fluids 55(3):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yoon SY, Kim KC (2006) 3d particle position and 3d velocity field measurement in a microvolume via the defocusing concept. Meas Sci Technol 17:2897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang Z (2010) A practicle introduction to light field microscopy. Computer Graphics Laboratory. Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, pp 1–15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tadd T. Truscott
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jesse Belden
    • 2
  • Rui Ni
    • 3
  • Jonathon Pendlebury
    • 4
  • Bryce McEwen
    • 4
  1. 1.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA
  2. 2.Naval Undersea Warfare CenterNewportUSA
  3. 3.Pennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA
  4. 4.Brigham Young UniversityProvoUSA

Personalised recommendations