Drag reduction by means of dimpled surfaces in turbulent boundary layers

Abstract

Direct force measurements and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to investigate the drag and flow structure caused by surfaces with patterns of shallow spherical dimples with rounded edges subject to turbulent boundary layers. Drag reduction of up to 4 % is found compared to a flat surface. The largest drag reduction was found at the highest tested Reynolds number of 40,000 (based on dimple diameter). A favorable trend promises further improvements at higher Reynolds numbers. PIV revealed the absence of significant separation inside the dimples but did show the existence of a converging/diverging flow in the upstream and downstream dimple half, respectively. This leads to the rejection of theories proposed by other authors concerning the mechanism responsible for drag reduction. Instead, a fundamental dependence on pattern orientation is observed. Furthermore, preliminary Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations have been compared with the PIV data. Although the large-scale mean flows show good agreement, the numerical simulation predicts no drag reduction. As the RANS approach is inherently incapable of resolving effects on the behavior of small-scale turbulence structure, the origin of drag reduction is attributed to effects on the small-scale turbulence, which is not resolved in the simulations. It is argued that dimples, when placed in well-designed patterns to create the necessary large-scale flow structure, lead to drag reduction by affecting the turbulent structures in the boundary layer, possibly in a way similar to spanwise oscillations of the wall.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21

References

  1. Benedict LH, Gould RD (1996) Towards better uncertainty estimates for turbulence statistics. Exp Fluids 22(2):129–136. doi:10.1007/s003480050030

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Breuer M, Lammers P, Zeiser T, Hager G, Wellein G (2008) Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow over dimples—code optimization for nec sx-8 plus flow results. In: High performance computing in science and engineering’07: transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2007, pp 303–318

  3. Choi KS, Clayton BR (2001) The mechanism of turbulent drag reduction with wall oscillation. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 22(1):1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Dean B, Bhushan B (2010) Shark-skin surfaces for fluid-drag reduction in turbulent flow: a review. Philos Trans R Soc A 368(1929):4775–4806. doi:10.2307/25753440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Du Y, Symeonidis V, Karniadakis GE (2002) Drag reduction in wall-bounded turbulence via a transverse travelling wave. J Fluid Mech. doi:10.1017/s0022112001007613

  6. Isaev SA, Leont’ev AI, Baranov PA (2000) Identification of self-organized vortexlike structures in numerically simulated turbulent flow of a viscous incompressible liquid streaming around a well on a plane. Tech Phys Lett 26(1):15–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Kiknadze GI, Krasnov YK, Chushkin YV (1984) Investigation of the enhancement of heat transfer due to self-organization of ordered dynamic twisted heat-carrier structures on a heat-transfer surface. Report IV Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy

  8. Kiknadze GI, Gachechiladze IA, Oleinikov VG, Alekseev VV (2006) Mechanisms of the self-organization of tornado-like jets flowing past three-dimensional concave reliefs. Heat Transf Res 37(6):467–494

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Klebanoff P (1955) Characteristics of turbulenc in a boundary layer with zero pressure gradient. Report, NACA

  10. Kovalenko GV, Terekhov VI, Khalatov AA (2010) Flow regimes in a single dimple on the channel surface. J Appl Mech Tech Phys 51(6):839–848

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Lashkov YA, Samoilova NV (2002) On the viscous drag of a plate with spherical recesses. Fluid Dyn 37(2):231–236

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  12. Lienhart H, Breuer M, Köksoy C (2008) Drag reduction by dimples? A complementary experimental/numerical investigation. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 29(3):783–791. doi:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2008.02.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Liu J, Li J (2014) Numerical prediction of flow structure and heat enhancement with different dimple depth. Appl Mech Mater 574:147–153. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.574.147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Prasad AK (2000) Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 29:103–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Quadrio M, Ricco P (2004) Critical assessment of turbulent drag reduction through spanwise wall oscillations. J Fluid Mech 521:251–271

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  16. Raffel M, Willert C, Kompenhans J (1998) Particle image velocimetry: a practical guide. Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  17. Stenzel V, Wilke Y, Hage W (2011) Drag-reducing paints for the reduction of fuel consumption in aviation and shipping. Prog Org Coat 70(4):224–229. doi:10.1016/j.porgcoat.2010.09.026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Tay CM (2011) Determining the effect of dimples on drag in a turbulent channel flow. In: 49th AIAA aerospace sciences meeting. doi:10.2514/6.2011-682

  19. Tay CM, Chew YT, Khoo BC, Zhao JB (2014) Development of flow structures over dimples. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 52:278–287. doi:10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2013.10.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Tay CMJ, Khoo BC, Chew YT (2015) Mechanics of drag reduction by shallow dimples in channel flow. Phys Fluids 27(3):035,109. doi:10.1063/1.4915069

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Veldhuis L, Vervoort E (2009) Drag effect of a dented surface in a turbulent flow. In: 27th AIAA applied aerodynamics conference. doi:10.2514/6.2009-3950

  22. Viswanath PR (2002) Aircraft viscous drag reduction using riblets. Prog Aerosp Sci 38(6–7):571–600

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. White F (2006) Viscous fluid flow, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  24. Yakeno A, Hasegawa Y, Kasagi N (2014) Modification of quasi-streamwise vortical structure in a drag-reduced turbulent channel flow with spanwise wall oscillation. Phys Fluids 26(8):85–109. doi:10.1063/1.4893903

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Zhao J, Chew Y, Khoo B (2004) Experimental studies on hydrodynamic resistance and flow pattern of a narrow flow channel with dimples on the wall. In: ASME 2004 international mechanical engineering congress and exposition

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. van Nesselrooij.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

van Nesselrooij, M., Veldhuis, L.L.M., van Oudheusden, B.W. et al. Drag reduction by means of dimpled surfaces in turbulent boundary layers. Exp Fluids 57, 142 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-016-2230-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Particle Image Velocimetry
  • Drag Reduction
  • Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement
  • Particle Image Velocimetry Data
  • Turbulent Drag