Three-dimensional flow measurements on flapping wings using synthetic aperture PIV

Abstract

We present the results of 3D velocity measurements of the flow fields around a free-flying painted lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) and a tethered mechanical flapper using Synthetic Aperture PIV (SAPIV). The velocity fields presented for the free-flying butterfly have limited spatial resolution; however, leading edge vortices (LEV) and trailing edge vortices (TEV) can be seen during the downstroke of the butterfly. The results show that SAPIV has potential as a flow analysis tool to obtain whole-field, time-resolved velocities surrounding freely flying insects. The results of a tethered mechanical flapper focus mainly on the LEV and TEV through an entire flapping cycle. The results are compared to velocity measurements taken using traditional PIV techniques. Additionally, force measurements of the lift and thrust generated by the mechanical flapper are compared with the calculated forces from the measured velocity data and circulation in the flow field. The reconstructed visual hull of the butterfly and mechanical flapper is also discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15

References

  1. Adhikari D, Longmire E (2012) Visual hull method for tomographic piv meassurement of flow around moving objects. Exp Fluids 53:943–964

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Belden J, Truscott T, Axiak MC, Techet AH (2010) Three-dimensional synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry. Measurement Sci Technol 21(12):125403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Belden J, Ravela S, Truscott TT, Techet A (2012) Three-dimensional bubble field resolution using synthetic aperture imaging: application to a plunging jet. Exp Fluids 52(6):839–861

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bimbard G, Kolomenskiy D, Bouteleux O, Casas J, Godoy-Diana R (2013) Force balance in the take-off of a pierid butterfly: relative importance and timing of leg impulsion and aerodynamic forces. J Exp Biol 216(18):3551–3563. doi:10.1242/jeb.084699

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bomphrey R (2011) Advances in animal flight aerodynamics through flow measurement. Evol Biol 39(1):1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bomphrey RJ (2006) Application of digital particle image velocimetry to insect aerodynamics: measurement of the leading-edge vortex and near wake of a hawkmoth. Exp Fluids 40(4):546–554

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bomphrey RJ, Lawson NJ, Harding NJ, Taylor GK, Thomas ALR (2005) The aerodynamics of manduca sexta: digital particle image velocimetry analysis of the leading-edge vortex. J Exp Biol 208(6):1079

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bomphrey RJ, Taylor GK, Lawson NJ, Thomas AL (2006) Digital particle image velocimetry measurements of the downwash distribution of a desert locust schistocerca gregaria. J R Soc 3(7):311–317

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bomphrey RJ, Henningsson P, Michaelis D, Hollis D (2012) Tomographic particle image velocimetery of desert locust wakes: instantaneous volumes combine to reveal hidden vortex elements and rapid wake deformation. J R Soc Interface 9(77):3378–3386

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Clemons L, Igarashi H, Hu H (2010) An experimental study of unsteady vortex structures of a piezoelectric flapping wing. In: AIAA aerospace sciences meeting including the new horizons forum and aerospace exposition, AIAA 2010-1025

  11. David L, Jardin T, Braud P, Farcy A (2012) Time-resolved scanning tomography piv measurements around a flapping wing. Exp Fluids 52(4):857–864

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Epps B, Techet A (2007) Impulse generated during unsteady maneuvering of swimming fish. Exp Fluids 43(5):691–700

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Fuchiwaki M, Kuroki T, Tanaka K, Tababa T (2013) Dynamic behavior of the vortex ring formed on a butterfly wing. Exp Fluids 54:1–12

  14. Hartley R, Zisserman A (2010) Multiple view geometry in computer vision, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  15. Henningson P, Bomphrey RJ (2011) Time-varying span efficiency through the wingbeat of desert locusts. J R Soc Interface

  16. Lu Y, Shen G (2008) Three-dimensional flow structures and evolution of the leading-edge vortices on a flapping wing. J Exp Biol 211(8):1221–1230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Luff J, Douillard T, Rompage A, Linne M, Hertzberg J (1999) Experimental uncertainties associated with particle image velocimetry (piv) based vorticity algorithms. Exp Fluids 26:36–54

  18. Mazaheri K, Ebrahimi A (2010) Experimental study on interaction of aerodynamics with flexible wings of flapping vehicles in hovering and cruise flight. Arch Appl Mech 80(11):1255–1269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Mendelson L, Techet AH (2013) 3d synthetic aperture piv of a swimming fish. In: Westerweel J (ed) 10th international symposium on particle image velocimetry—PIV13. Delft, Netherlands

  20. Ol M, Dong H, Webb C (2008) Motion kinematics vs. angle of attack effects in high-frequency airfoil pitch/plunge. In: 38th Fluid dynamics conference and exhibit, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi:10.2514/6.2008-3822

  21. Otsu N (1975) A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms. Automatica 11(285–296):23–27

    Google Scholar 

  22. Poelma C, Dickson W, Dickinson M (2006) Time-resolved reconstruction of the full velocity field around a dynamically-scaled flapping wing. Exp Fluids 41(2):213–225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Scarano F, Poelma C (2009) Three-dimensional vorticity patterns of cylinder wakes. Exp Fluids 47:69–83

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Shyy W, Aono H, Chimakurthi SK, Trizila P, Kang CK, Cesnik CES, Liu H (2010) Recent progress in flapping wing aerodynamics and aeroelasticity. Prog Aerosp Sci 46(7):284–327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Srygley RB, Thomas ALR (2002) Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies. Nature 420(6916):660

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Svoboda T, Martinec D, Pajdla T (2005) A convenient multi-camera self-calibration for virtual environments. PRESENCE Teleoperators Virtual Environ 14(4):407–422

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Taira K, Colonius T (2009) Three-dimensional flows around low-aspect-ratio flat-plate wings at low reynolds numbers. J Fluid Mech 623:187–207

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  28. Taylor GK, Nudds RL, Thomas AL (2003) Flying and swimming animals cruise at a strouhal number tuned for high power efficiency. Nature 425(6959):707–711

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1126862 and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research award FA9550-10-1-0334. The authors would also like to thank Wesley Fassmann and Sam Donald for their assistance in obtaining the experimental data.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tadd T. Truscott.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Langley, K.R., Hardester, E., Thomson, S.L. et al. Three-dimensional flow measurements on flapping wings using synthetic aperture PIV. Exp Fluids 55, 1831 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-014-1831-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Vorticity
  • Particle Image Velocimetry
  • Lift Force
  • Lead Edge Vortex
  • Particle Image Velocimetry Image