Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 53, Issue 2, pp 545–560 | Cite as

PIV analysis of merging flow in a simplified model of a rotary kiln

  • I. A. Sofia Larsson
  • B. Reine Granström
  • T. Staffan Lundström
  • B. Daniel Marjavaara
Research Article


Rotary kilns are used in a variety of industrial applications. The focus in this work is on characterizing the non-reacting, isothermal flow field in a rotary kiln used for iron ore pelletization. A downscaled, simplified model of the kiln is experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry. Five different momentum flux ratios of the two inlet ducts to the kiln are investigated in order to evaluate its effect on the flow field in general and the recirculation zone in particular. Time-averaged and phase-averaged analyses are reported, and it is found that the flow field resembles that of two parallel merging jets, with the same characteristic flow zones. The back plate separating the inlet ducts acts as a bluff body to the flow and creates a region of reversed flow behind it. Due to the semicircular cross-section of the jets, the wake is elongated along the walls. Conclusions are that the flow field shows a dependence on momentum flux ratio of the jets; as the momentum flux ratio approaches unity, there is an increasing presence of von Kármán-type coherent structures with a Strouhal number of between 0.16 and 0.18. These large-scale structures enhance the mixing of the jets and also affect the size of the recirculation zone. It is also shown that the inclination of the upper inlet duct leads to a decrease in length of the recirculation zone in certain cases.


  1. Anderson EA, Snyder DO, Christensen J (2003) Periodic flow between low aspect ratio parallel jets. J Fluids Eng-T ASME 125(2):389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker HA, Hottel HC, Williams GC (1963) Mixing and flow in ducted turbulent jets. Symp (Int) Combust 9(1):7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berbish NS, Moawed M, Ammar M, Afifi RI (2011) Heat transfer and friction factor of turbulent flow through a horizontal semi-circular duct. Heat Mass Transf 47(4):377–384Google Scholar
  4. Bunderson NE, Smith BL (2005) Passive mixing control of plane parallel jets. Exp Fluids 39(1):66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burström P, Lundström S, Marjavaara D, Töyrä S (2010) CFD-modelling of selective non-catalytic reduction of NOx in grate-kiln plants. Prog Comput Fluid Dynam Int J 10(5/6):284–291MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coleman HW, Steele WG (1999) Experimentation and uncertainty analysis for engineers, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Curtet R (1958) Confined jets and recirculation phenomena with cold air. Combust Flame 2(4):383–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dean RB, Bradshaw P (1976) Measurements of interacting turbulent shear layers in a duct. J Fluid Mech 78(4):641–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Djeridi H, Braza M, Perrin R, Harran G, Cid E, Cazin S (2003) Near-wake turbulence properties around a circular cylinder at high Reynolds number. Flow Turbul Combust 71:19–34MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doherty J, Ngan P, Monty J, Chong M (2007) The development of turbulent pipe flow. In: Jacobs PA, McIntyre TJ, Cleary MJ, Buttsworth D, Mee DJ, Clements R, Morgan RG, Lemckert C (eds) 16th Australasian fluid mechanics conference, University of Queensland, Brisbane, pp 266–270Google Scholar
  11. Etemad SG (1995) Laminar heat transfer to viscous non-newtonian fluids in non-circular ducts. PhD thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  12. Granström R, Lundström S, Marjavaara D, Töyrä S (2009) CFD modelling of the flow through a grate-kiln. In: Proceedings from seventh international conference on computational fluid ynamics in minerals and process industries, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  13. Grant I, Owens E, Yan YY, Shen X (1992) Particle image velocimetry measurements of the separated flow behind a rearward facing step. Exp Fluids 12(4–5):238–244Google Scholar
  14. Hill PG (1965) Turbulent jets in ducted streams. J Fluid Mech 22(01):161–186MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kirschner O, Ruprecht A (2007) Velocity measurements with PIV in a straight cone draft tube. In: Proceedings of the 3rd German-Romanian workshop on turbomachinery hydrodynamics, Timisoara, RomaniaGoogle Scholar
  16. Kostas J, Soria M, Chong MS (2005) A comparison between snapshot POD analysis of PIV velocity and vorticity data. Exp Fluids 38(2):146–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lai JCS, Nasr A (1999) Two parallel plane jets: comparison of the performance of three turbulence models. Proc Inst Mech Eng G J Aersp 212(6):379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Larsson IAS, Lindmark EM, Lundström TS, Nathan GJ (2011) Secondary flow in semi-circular ducts. J Fluids Eng-T ASME 133(10):101206-1–101206-8Google Scholar
  19. Larsson S, Lindmark E, Lundström S, Marjavaara D, Töyrä S (2013) Visualization of merging flow by usage of PIV and CFD with application to grate-kiln induration machines. J Appl Fluid Mech 6(1) (accepted for publication)Google Scholar
  20. LaVision GmbH (2007) Product manual for Davis 7.2Google Scholar
  21. Lei QM, Trupp AC (1990) Forced convection of thermally developing laminar flow in circular sector ducts. Int J Heat Mass Transf 33(8):1675–1683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Meyer KE, Pedersen JM, Özcan O (2007) A turbulent jet in crossflow analysed with proper orthogonal decomposition. J Fluid Mech 583:199–227MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moles DF, Watson D, Lain PB (1973) The aerodynamics of the rotary cement kiln. J Inst Fuel 46:353–362Google Scholar
  24. Montgomery DC (2005) Design and analysis of experiments, 6th edn. Wiley, HobokenMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. Monty JP (2005) Developments in smooth wall turbulent duct flows. PhD thesis, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  26. Perrin R, Braza M, Cid E, Cazin S, Moradei F, Barthet A, Sevrain A, Hoarau Y (2006) Near-wake turbulence properties in the high Reynolds number incompressible flow around a circular cylinder measured by two- and three-component PIV. Flow Turbul Combust 77:185–204MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Popiel CO, Turner JT (1991) Visualization of high blockage flow behind a flat plate in a rectangular channel. J Fluids Eng-T ASME 113(1):143–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raffel M, Willert CE, Wereley ST, Kompenhans J (2007) Particle image velocimetry—a practical guide. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  29. Taylor JR (1997) An introduction to error analysis, 2nd edn. University Science Books, Mill ValleyGoogle Scholar
  30. Thring MW, Newby MP (1953) Combustion length of enclosed turbulent jet flames. Symp (Int) Combust 4(1):789–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. van de Kamp WL, Daimon J (1996) Further studies on the effect of burner design variables and fuel properties on the characteristics of cement kiln flames—report on the CEMFLAME-2 experiments. Technical report, IFRFGoogle Scholar
  32. van Oudheusden BW, Scarano F, van Hinsberg NP, Watt DW (2005) Phase-resolved characterization of vortex shedding in the near wake of a square-section cylinder at incidence. Exp Fluids 39(1):86–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang XK, Tan SK (2007) Experimental investigation of the interaction between a plane wall jet and a parallel offset jet. Exp Fluids 42(4):551–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang XK, Tan SK (2008) Comparison of flow patterns in the near wake of a circular cylinder and a square cylinder placed near a plane wall. Ocean Eng 35(5–6):458–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. A. Sofia Larsson
    • 1
  • B. Reine Granström
    • 1
  • T. Staffan Lundström
    • 1
  • B. Daniel Marjavaara
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Fluid and Experimental MechanicsLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden
  2. 2.LKABKirunaSweden

Personalised recommendations