Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 613–622 | Cite as

Experimental study on turbulent natural convection heat transfer in water with sub-millimeter-bubble injection

  • Atsuhide KitagawaEmail author
  • Kenji Kitada
  • Yoshimichi Hagiwara
Research Article


Using thermocouples and a particle tracking velocimetry technique, temperature and velocity measurements are conducted to investigate flow and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent natural convection from a vertical heated plate in water with sub-millimeter-bubble injection. Hydrogen-bubbles generated by the electrolysis of water are used as the sub-millimeter-bubbles. In the turbulent region, the heat transfer deterioration occurs for a bubble flow rate Q = 33 mm3/s, while the heat transfer enhancement occurs for Q = 56 mm3/s. Temperature and velocity measurements suggest that the former is caused by a delay of the transition due to the bubble-induced upward flow. On the other hand, the latter is mainly due to two factors: one is the enhancement of the rotation of eddies in the outer layer, and the other is the increase in the gradient of the streamwise liquid velocity at the heated wall. These are caused by bubbles, which are located in the inner layer, rising at high speed.


Heat Transfer Enhancement Liquid Velocity Reynolds Shear Stress Heated Plate Heated Wall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atsuhide Kitagawa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kenji Kitada
    • 1
  • Yoshimichi Hagiwara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and System EngineeringKyoto Institute of TechnologyKyotoJapan

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