Advertisement

Experiments in Fluids

, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 949–964 | Cite as

Aerodynamics of ski jumping: experiments and CFD simulations

  • W. MeileEmail author
  • E. Reisenberger
  • M. Mayer
  • B. Schmölzer
  • W. Müller
  • G. Brenn
Research Article

Abstract

The aerodynamic behaviour of a model ski jumper is investigated experimentally at full-scale Reynolds numbers and computationally applying a standard RANS code. In particular we focus on the influence of different postures on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. The experimental results proved to be in good agreement with full-scale measurements with athletes in much larger wind tunnels, and form a reliable basis for further predictions of the effects of position changes on the performance. The comparison of CFD results with the experiments shows poor agreement, but enables a clear outline of simulation potentials and limits when accurate predictions of effects from small variations are required.

Keywords

Computational Fluid Dynamics Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Force Flight Path Flight Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of symbols

A

cross-sectional area

c

coefficient

D

drag area

F

force

H

height

L

lift area

I

reference length

\(\ifmmode\expandafter\bar\else\expandafter\=\fi{l}\)

characteristic length (Reynolds number)

M

pitching moment

q

dynamic pressure

Re

Reynolds number

T

thickness

t

time

v

velocity

V

angle between the skis

W

width

Greek letters

α

angle of attack

β

body angle relative to the skis

γ

hip angle

δ, ϕ

angles characterizing the positions of head (δ) and arms (ϕ)

Δ

difference

ρ

air density

μ

dynamic air viscosity

ν

kinematic air viscosity

Subscripts

D

drag

L

lift

FS

full-scale

M

pitching moment, model

max

maximum

S

simulation

UB

upper body

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF, P14388-TEC), the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Ski Federation (FIS). Parts of the numerical simulations were carried out in the scope of applied and basic research at the VRVis Research Center, which is funded by the Austrian governmental K plus research program (http://www.kplus.at). Cooperation with AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria, is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Gretler W, Meile W (1991) Eine Sechs-Komponenten-Plattform-Windkanalwaage. ÖIAZ 136/9:403–408Google Scholar
  2. Gretler W, Meile, W (1993) Der 2 m-Windkanal am Institut für Strömungslehre und Gasdynamik der Technischen Universität Graz. ÖIAZ 138/3:90–96Google Scholar
  3. Hanjalić K (1994) Advanced turbulence closure models: a view on the current status and future prospects. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 15:178–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hanna RK (1996) Going faster, higher and longer in sports with CFD. In: Haake S (ed) The engineering of sport. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 3–10Google Scholar
  5. Launder BE, Spalding DB (1974) The numerical computations of turbulent flows. Comp Meth Appl Mech Eng 3:269–289zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Müller W, Schmölzer B (2002) Computer simulated ski jumping: the tightrope walk to high performance. In: Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on biomechanics, CalgaryGoogle Scholar
  7. Müller W, Platzer D, Schmölzer B (1995) Scientific approach to ski safety. Nature 375:455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Müller W, Platzer D, Schmölzer B (1996) Dynamics of human flight on skis: improvements on safety and fairness in ski jumping. J Biomech 29(8):1061–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Müller W, Gröschl W, Schmölzer B, Sudi K (2003) Body weight and performance in ski jumping: the low weight problem and a possible way to solve it. In: Proceedings of the 7th IOC World Congress on sport sciences, Athens, 43DGoogle Scholar
  10. Müller W, Gröschl W, Müller R, Sudi K (2006) Underweight in ski jumping: the solution of the problem. Int J Sports Med (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Patankar SV, Spalding DB (1972) A calculation procedure for heat, mass and momentum transfer in three-dimensional parabolic flows. Int J Heat Mass Transf 15:1787–1806zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Reisenberger E (2005) Untersuchungen zum aerodynamischen Verhalten von Schispringern. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Graz University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  13. Reisenberger E, Meile W, Brenn G, Müller W (2004) Aerodynamic behaviour of prismatic bodies with sharp and rounded edges. Exp Fluids 37:547–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Remizov LP (1984) Biomechanics of optimal flight in ski jumping. J Biomech 17:167–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schmölzer B, Müller W (2002) The importance of being light: aerodynamic forces and weight in ski jumping. J Biomech 35:1059–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schmölzer B, Müller W (2005) Individual flight styles in ski jumping: results obtained during Olympic Games competitions. J Biomech 38:1055–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Speziale CG (1996) Modelling of turbulent transport equations. In: Gatski TB, Hussaini MY, Lumley JL (eds) Simulation and modeling of turbulent flows, Ch. 5, ICASE/LaRC Series in Comp. Sci. Eng., Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Meile
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. Reisenberger
    • 1
  • M. Mayer
    • 3
  • B. Schmölzer
    • 2
  • W. Müller
    • 2
  • G. Brenn
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat TransferGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  2. 2.Department for BiophysicsMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  3. 3.VRVis GmbHViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations