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Global, regional, and national burden of urinary tract infections from 1990 to 2019: an analysis of the global burden of disease study 2019

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Abstract

Purpose

We aimed to estimate the burden of UTIs by age, sex, and socioeconomic status in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019.

Methods

We used data from Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to analyse the incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to UTIs at the global, regional, and national levels. Estimates are presented as numbers and age-standardised or age-specific rates per 100,000 population, with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We further explored the associations between the incidence, mortality, DALYs, and socio-demographic index (SDI) as a proxy for the development status of regions and countries.

Results

In 2019, more than 404.6 million (95% UI 359.4–446.5) individuals had UTIs globally and nearly 236,786 people (198,433–259,034) died of UTIs, contributing to 5.2 million (4.5–5.7) DALYs. The age-standardised incidence rate increased from 4715.0 (4174.2–5220.6) per 100,000 population in 1990 to 5229.3 (4645.3–5771.2) per 100,000 population in 2019. At the GBD regional level, the highest age-standardised incidence rate in 2019 occurred in Tropical Latin America (13,852.9 [12,135.6–15,480.3] per 100,000 population). At the national level, Ecuador had the highest age-standardised incidence rate (15,511.3 [13,685.0–17,375.6] per 100,000 population). The age-standardised death rates were highest in Barbados (19.5 [13.7–23.5] per 100,000 population). In addition, age-standardised incidence, death, and DALY rates generally increased across the SDI.

Conclusions

Our study results suggest a globally rising trend of UTI burden between 1990 and 2019.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation staff and its collaborators who prepared these publicly available data.

Funding

This work was supported by a Grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Young Scientists Fund (Grant numbers 81800041 and 82000078).

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

ZLZ and JZ contributed equally to this paper. JZ and HLC designed the study, had full access to all data in the study, and take responsibility for the integrity and accuracy of the data analysis. KMZ and JZ contributed to data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, and the literature search. ZLZ and HLC drafted the manuscript. SC final revised the manuscript. All authors contributed to data acquisition, data analysis, or data interpretation, and all reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Huilong Chen.

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The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given their approval for this version to be published.

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Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

345_2021_3913_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

Supplement Figure 1. Global number and age-standardised rates of incidence (A), death (B) and DALY (C) of urinary tract infection per 100 000 population by SDI, 1999-2019 (PDF 456 kb)

345_2021_3913_MOESM2_ESM.pdf

Supplement Figure 2A. Age-standardised incidence rates of UTIs for 204 countries and territories by SDI 2019 (PDF 339 kb)

Supplement Figure 2B. Age-standardised death rates of UTIs for 204 countries and territories by SDI 2019 (PDF 358 kb)

Supplement Figure 2C. Age-standardised DALY rates of UTIs for 204 countries and territories by SDI 2019 (PDF 330 kb)

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Zeng, Z., Zhan, J., Zhang, K. et al. Global, regional, and national burden of urinary tract infections from 1990 to 2019: an analysis of the global burden of disease study 2019. World J Urol 40, 755–763 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03913-0

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03913-0

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