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Outcomes of treatment for localized prostate cancer in a single institution: comparison of radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy by propensity score matching analysis

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To compare the outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) using propensity score matching analysis in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.


A group of 2273 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer between January 2004 and December 2015 at the Yokohama City University hospital were identified. The records of 1817 of these patients, who were followed up for a minimum of 2 years, were reviewed; 462 were treated with RP, 319 with IMRT, and 1036 with BT. The patients were categorized according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk classification criteria, and biochemical outcomes and overall survival rates were examined. Biochemical failure for RP was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels > 0.2 ng/ml, and for IMRT and BT as nadir PSA level + 2 ng/ml. Propensity scores were calculated using multivariable logistic regression based on covariates, including the patient's age, preoperative PSA, Gleason score, number of positive cores, and clinical T stage.


Median follow-up was 77 months for the RP, 54 months for IMRT, and 66 months for BT patients. After the propensity scores were adjusted, a total of 372 (186 each) and 598 (299 each) patients were categorized into RP vs IMRT and RP vs BT groups, respectively. Kaplan–Meier analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in terms of overall survival rate between these groups (RP vs IMRT: p = 0.220; RP vs BT: p = 0.429). IMRT was associated with improved biochemical failure-free survival compared to RP in all risk groups (high-risk: p < 0.001; intermediate-risk: p = 0.009; low-risk: p = 0.001), whereas significant differences were observed only in the intermediate-risk group (p = 0.003) within the RP vs BT group.


The results of our propensity score analysis of mid-term localized prostate cancer treatment outcomes demonstrated no significant differences in the overall survival rate. Despite the difference in biochemical failure definition between surgery and radiotherapeutic approaches, the results of this study demonstrate improved biochemical control favoring IMRT and BT as compared to RP.

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Authors and Affiliations



Protocol/project development: NH, YM, and HU. Data collection or management: NH, KO, KM, HH, KM, KK, NN, MY, YM, MS, ST, EI, HK, IK, MH, YM, KI, TK, and HU. Data analysis: NH, YM, and MT. Manuscript writing/editing: NH.

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Correspondence to Narihiko Hayashi.

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Conflict of interest

Hiroji Uemura MD has financial interest and/or other relationship with Astellas, Janssen, Sanofi and Takeda. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable standards.

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Informed consent prior to each treatment was obtained by every patient.

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Hayashi, N., Osaka, K., Muraoka, K. et al. Outcomes of treatment for localized prostate cancer in a single institution: comparison of radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy by propensity score matching analysis. World J Urol 38, 2477–2484 (2020).

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