Current and future international patterns of care of neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury
We aim to summarize the literature on international patterns of care for patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB) from spinal cord injury (SCI).
We performed a PubMed database search, hand review of references, communication with professional societies, and registry evaluations for pertinent data.
Established patterns of care, including SCI registries and specialty centers, are available in high-resource countries such as the US and UK. As such, mortality rates from complications of NGB/SCI are lower. Access to intermittent catheterization supplies, among other resources, may be inadequate in many low-income regions. Cultural and religious beliefs may also hinder integration of proper bladder management in SCI patients. While guidelines exist in many parts of the world, it is unclear how rigorously they are disseminated or followed.
While there is a paucity of high-level evidence, the differences in patterns of care are closely related to socioeconomic status and resources of the geographic area. Future research efforts should focus on improving access to diagnostic modalities, supplies, and specialists in these areas.
KeywordsNeurogenic bladder Spinal cord injury Intermittent catheterization Registry Guidelines
AG: project development, data collection, and manuscript writing; GEL: project development and manuscript witing; JCC: project development and data collection; RKL: project development; JBM: project development and data collection; PG: project development and data collection; and RRD: project development, data collection, and manuscript writing
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There were no potential conflicts of interest for any of the authors.
Human and animal rights statement
All of the research involved a chart review and no research involving human participants and/or animals was performed.
Informed consent was not required.
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