CD163+ macrophages predict a poor prognosis in patients with primary T1 high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder



Macrophages are a major cell type that can infiltrate solid tumors and exhibit distinct phenotypes in different tumor microenvironments. This study investigates the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrated CD163+ macrophages in patients with T1 high-grade (T1HG) bladder cancer.


CD163+ macrophages were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 94 T1HG bladder cancer samples. Kaplan–Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazards’ regression models were applied to evaluate recurrence-free survival, progression-free survival and disease-specific survival.


With a median follow-up of 60 months, 37 (39.4%) patients experienced disease recurrence, 14 (14.9%) progression, 11 (11.7%) disease-specific mortality. High CD163+ macrophages were associated with higher risk of disease recurrence and progression (P < 0.05, for both). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, high CD163+ macrophages were a significant negative predictor of recurrence-free survival, progression-free survival and disease-specific survival (P < 0.05 for all).


CD163+ macrophages are a poor prognostic factor in T1HG bladder cancer. This finding provide the ground for further testing it in predicting the outcome of this challenging disease.

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This work was supported by Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau (CN) (No. 20164Y0124), Incubating Program for clinical Research and Innovation of Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (PYII-17-010).

Author information




GY, JB: Protocol/project development. GY, LZ, ML: Data collection or management. QL, XD: Data analysis. GY, JB: Manuscript writing/editing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Juanjie Bo.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research ethics/informed consent

The study was performed according to the Helsinki Declaration and approved by the Ethics Committee of Renji hospital, school of medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, China; Number: 335/16). This was a retrospective study evaluating perioperative data. A signed informed consent was obtained from the patients.

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Yang, G., Zhang, L., Liu, M. et al. CD163+ macrophages predict a poor prognosis in patients with primary T1 high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. World J Urol 37, 2721–2726 (2019).

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  • Bladder cancer
  • T1 high grade
  • CD163+ macrophage
  • Prognosis