Preoperative chronic kidney disease is predictive of oncological outcome of radical cystectomy for bladder cancer
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To evaluate the impact of preoperative chronic kidney disease (CKD) on oncological outcomes after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer.
We reviewed the medical records of patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma who underwent RC with curative intent at seven hospitals between 1990 and 2013. After excluding patients with a history of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer or neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we analyzed 594 cases for the study. Preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the three-variable Japanese equation for GFR estimation from serum creatinine level and age. Patients were divided into four groups of different CKD stages based on eGFR values (mL/min/1.73 m2), i.e., ≥ 60 (CKD stages G1–2), 45–60 (G3a), 30–45 (G3b), and < 30 (G4–5). Survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses addressed survivals after RC.
Median age of patients was 67 years. Patients were classified into CKD stages: G1–2 (n = 388; 65.3%), G3a (n = 122; 20.5%), G3b (n = 51; 8.6%), and G4–5 (n = 33; 5.6%). During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 200 and 164 patients showed cancer progression and died of bladder cancer, with the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 64.9 and 70.2%, respectively. On multivariate analyses, CKD stages of G3b or greater, advanced pT stage, lymph node metastasis, and positive lymphovascular invasion were independent poor prognostic factors for PFS and CSS.
We demonstrated that the advanced preoperative CKD stage was significantly associated with poor oncological outcomes of the bladder cancer after RC.
KeywordsBladder cancer Chronic kidney disease Radical cystectomy Cancer-specific survival Progression-free survival
Urothelial cancer of the bladder
Chronic kidney disease
Upper tract urothelial cancer
Dr. Kyoichi Tomita, Department of Urology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, provided insights. Tomiko Ozawa, Tokyo Metropolitan Bokutoh Hospital, assisted database management.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study has been approved by the institutional review board of each participating institute and has been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
AM was involved in project development, data collection, data analysis, and manuscript writing. TN contributed to project development, data analysis, and manuscript writing. AK, MI, TK, JM, ST, AN, MO, YN, and YK were all involved in data collection, data analysis, and manuscript editing. MS, FK, YN, TO, and YT contributed to data analysis and manuscript editing. HM, TF, HF, HK, and YI edited the manuscript. YH performed the manuscript editing, administrative support, and supervision.
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