Skip to main content

Female urethral stricture: a contemporary series



To report the etiology, presenting symptoms and outcomes of the different treatments performed in female patients with recurrent urethral stricture.

Materials and methods

Twenty-six patients with refractory LUTS were diagnosed with a urethral stricture. The symptoms, the treatment performed and the outcomes were prospectively recorded. Sixteen patients were treated with a urethroplasty using a buccal mucosal graft (BMG) in 14 cases (54 %) and a vaginal flap in 2 (8 %). Urethral dilatation, optical urethrotomy and meatoplasty were performed in 8 (31 %), 1 (3.8 %) and 1 (3.8 %) patients, respectively.


Strictures were idiopathic in 11 patients (42 %). Previous urethral instrumentation and traumatic vaginal delivery were the commonest causes of urethral stricture (42 and 15 %, respectively). The most frequent symptoms were reduced flow (93 %), detrusor overactivity (50 %) and UTIs (42 %). The stricture was cured in 93 % of patients treated with a BMG urethroplasty and in all the patients in which a vaginal flap urethroplasty was performed. In the same group, the improvement in urethral pain was observed in the 67 and the 88 % of patients were cured from recurrent UTIs. All the patients treated with urethral dilatation needed further dilatations; hence, the cure of the stricture was achieved in none of them. Improvement in urethral pain, UTIs and detrusor activity was not recorded in the latter group.


Urethroplasty in its various forms has demonstrated in the present series the highest cure rate for the treatment of recurrent urethral stricture.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. Carr LK, Webster GD (1996) Bladder outlet obstruction in women. Clin North Am 23:385–391

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Groutz A, Blaivas JG, Chaikin DC (2000) Bladder outlet obstruction in women: definition and characteristics. Neurourol Urodyn 19:213–220

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Kuo HC (2005) Videourodynamic characteristics and lower urinary tract symptoms of female bladder outlet obstruction. Urology 66:1005–1009

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Osman NI, Mangera A, Chapel CR (2013) A systematic review of surgical techniques used in the treatment of female urethral stricture. Eur Urol 64:965–973

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Keegan KA, Nanigian DK, Stone AR (2008) Female urethral stricture disease. Curr Urol Rep 9:419–423

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Onol FF, Antar B, Kose O, Erdem MR, Onol SY (2011) Techniques and results of urethroplasty for female urethral strictures: our experience with 17 patients. Urology 77:1318–132

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Blavias JG, Santos JA, Tsui JF, Deibert CM, Rutman MP, Purohit RS, Weiss JP (2012) Management of urethral stricture in women. J Urol 188:1778–1782

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Solomon E, Yasmin H, Jenks J, Pakzad M, Hamid R, Ockrim J et al (2014) MP76-02 The development and validation of a new nomogram for diagnosis bladder outlet obstruction in women. J Urol 191(4):e882

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Edwards L, Malvern J (1974) The urethral pressure profile: theoretical considerations and clinical application. Br J Urol 46(3):325–335

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. WWW.HSCIC.GOV.UK/HES. Accessed Mar 2016

  11. Brannan D (1951) Stricture of the female urethra. J Urol 66:242–253

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Smith AL, Ferlise VJ, Rovner ES (2006) Female urethral strictures: successful management with long-term clean intermittent catheterization after urethral dilatation. BJU Int 98:96–99

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Romman AN, Alhalabi F, Zimmern PE (2012) Distal intramural urethral pathology in women. J Urol 188:1218–1223

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Montorsi F, Salonia A, Centemero A et al (2002) Vestibular flap urethroplasty for strictures of the female urethra. Impact on symptoms and flow pattern. Urol Int 69:12–16

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Castillo OA, Sepulveda F, Feria-Flores MA (2011) Urethroplasty with dorsal oral mucosa graft in female urethral stenosis. Actas Urol Esp 35:246–249

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors’ Contribution

Spilotros contributed to protocol/project development, data collection and manuscript writing/editing; Malde helped with data management; Solomon contributed to data analysis; Grewal and Mukhtar contributed to data collection; Pakzad, Hamid and Ockrim helped with final review of the manuscript. Greenwell helped with protocol/project development, manuscript writing/editing and final review of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Spilotros.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest


Ethical statements

In lieu of a formal ethics committee, the principles of the Helsinki Declaration were followed.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Spilotros, M., Malde, S., Solomon, E. et al. Female urethral stricture: a contemporary series. World J Urol 35, 991–995 (2017).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Female
  • Urethra
  • Stricture
  • Urethroplasty
  • Buccal mucosa graft