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Prostate cancer progression and mortality: a review of diet and lifestyle factors

Abstract

Purpose

To review and summarize evidence on the role of diet and lifestyle factors and prostate cancer progression, with a specific focus on habits after diagnosis and the risk of subsequent disease recurrence, progression, or death.

Methods

Given the well-documented heterogeneity of prostate cancer and the long survivorship of the majority of diagnoses, our goal was to summarize and describe modifiable risk factors for clinically relevant prostate cancer. We focused where possible on epidemiologic studies of post-diagnostic habits and prostate cancer progression, defined as recurrence (e.g., PSA risk, secondary treatment), metastasis, or death. Where data were limited, we also describe evidence on risk factors and indicators of prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis.

Results

A variety of dietary and lifestyle factors appear to affect prostate cancer progression. Several generally widely recommended lifestyle factors such as not smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight, and regular vigorous physical exercise also appear to affect prostate cancer progression. Several dietary factors, such as tomato sauce/lycopene, cruciferous vegetables, healthy sources of vegetable fats, and coffee, may also have a role in reducing risk of prostate cancer progression.

Conclusion

Diet and lifestyle factors, in particular exercise and smoking cessation, may reduce the risk of prostate cancer progression and death. These promising findings warrant further investigation, as their overall impact might be large.

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Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health Grants 1UM1CA167552-0, RO1CA181802, RO1CA106947, and R21CA184605. We also recognize the support of the Prostate Cancer Foundation. Due to editorial constraints, the reference list was limited. A complete list of references is available via direct request to the corresponding author.

Author contributions

SF Peisch, EL Van Blarigan, JM Chan, and SA Kenfield contributed to manuscript writing/editing, data analysis, and protocol/project development. MJ Stampfer participated in manuscript writing/editing, data analysis, data collection or management, and protocol/project development.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Stacey A. Kenfield.

Ethics declarations

The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; nor the preparation, review, or approval of the article. The authors are grateful to the participants and staff of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Physicians’ Health Study for their valuable contributions.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Sam F. Peisch and Erin L. Van Blarigan shared co-first authorship.

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Peisch, S.F., Van Blarigan, E.L., Chan, J.M. et al. Prostate cancer progression and mortality: a review of diet and lifestyle factors. World J Urol 35, 867–874 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-016-1914-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-016-1914-3

Keywords

  • Prostate cancer progression
  • Lethal prostate cancer
  • Diet
  • Lifestyle