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Increasing incidence of testicular cancer in the United States and Europe between 1992 and 2009

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing in incidence, testicular cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in young men in the USA and in Europe. We sought to determine contemporary trends in testicular cancer incidence in the USA and Europe.

Methods

Testicular cancer incidence data covering the USA and Europe were extracted from the SEER-13 (SEER*Stat 8.0.1) and the EUREG databases, respectively. Trends were determined using JoinPoint 3.5.3.

Results

Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) incidence among US males >15 years increased from 1992 (5.7/100,000) to 2009 (6.8/100,000) with a significant annual percentage change (APC: 1.1 %, p < 0.001). Seminomas were 29 % of all TGCTs in 15–26 year-olds, increasing to 78 % in those 40+ years of age. TGCT rates were highest in White men (1992: 7.5/100,000; 2009: 8.6/100,000) followed by Hispanic men (1992: 4.0/100,000; 2009: 6.3/100,000) and lowest among Asian (1992: 2.0/100,000; 2009: 2.8/100,000) and Black men (1992: 0.7/100,000; 2009: 1.7/100,000). Significantly increasing incidence rates were observed in White men (APC: 1.2 %, p < 0.001) and most prominently in Hispanic men, especially from 2002 to 2009 (APC: 5.6 %, p < 0.01). Incidence of testicular cancer increased in 15 of 19 (79 %) European countries analyzed (p < 0.05). Denmark (13.4/100,000 man-years), Switzerland (12.7/100,000 man-years), and Norway (12.7/100,000 man-years) exhibited the highest age-standardized rates, while Spain had the greatest APC (APC = 5.5, 95 % CI 3.9–7.0 %, p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Between 1992 and 2009, testicular cancer incidence in the USA and Europe continued to increase, most notably in US Hispanic, Northern European, Spanish, and younger and older populations.

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Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a training grant from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical standard

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies. Institutional review board exemption was acquired since no patient, physician, or hospital identifiers were examined in this study utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiological, and End Results and EUREG databases.

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Correspondence to Scott Eggener.

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Nigam, M., Aschebrook-Kilfoy, B., Shikanov, S. et al. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer in the United States and Europe between 1992 and 2009. World J Urol 33, 623–631 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-014-1361-y

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Keywords

  • Testis
  • Neoplasms
  • Germ cell and embryonal
  • Testicular neoplasms
  • Epidemiology