World Journal of Urology

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 305–311 | Cite as

Diagnostic significance of [−2]pro-PSA and prostate dimension-adjusted PSA-related indices in men with total PSA in the 2.0–10.0 ng/mL range

  • Kazuto Ito
  • Mai Miyakubo
  • Yoshitaka Sekine
  • Hidekazu Koike
  • Hiroshi Matsui
  • Yasuhiro Shibata
  • Kazuhiro Suzuki
Original Article



One of the most important issues to address when developing an optimal screening system for prostate cancer is investigating appropriate biopsy indications following serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in order to maintain high sensitivity and avoid unnecessary biopsy.


Between April 2004 and December 2007, 239 consecutive men with total PSA levels of 2.0–10.0 ng/mL underwent measurements of PSA, free PSA, and [−2]pro-PSA. We assessed the significance of laboratory-based PSA-related indices including free PSA/total PSA (%f-PSA), p2PSA/free PSA (%p2PSA), p2PSA/%f-PSA, Prostate Health Index (phi, an index combining PSA, free PSA, and p2PSA), total prostate volume (TPV)-adjusted PSA-related indices, including PSA density, %p2PSA density, p2PSA/%f-PSA density, and phi density, and transition zone (TZ) prostate volume-adjusted PSA-related indices such as PSA TZ density (PSATZD), %p2PSA TZD, p2PSA/%fPSA TZD, and phi TZD.


The positive biopsy rate was 22.2 %. When sensitivity was fixed at 95 %, unnecessary biopsies could be avoided in 28 % of men when phi was used as a biopsy indication. In cases where total and transition zone prostate volumes were available, the use of %p2PSA density, phi density, p2PSA/%f-PSA TZD, and phi TZD resulted in the avoidance of 48, 47, 54, and 54 % of unnecessary biopsies, respectively, while maintaining a high sensitivity of 90 %.


At 90 and 95 % sensitivity, laboratory-based indices containing p2PSA, particularly phi, showed significantly greater specificity for prostate cancer as compared with %f-PSA. The diagnostic accuracy of prostate volume-adjusted p2PSA-related indices could be excellent, particularly the transition zone volume-adjusted indices at fixed sensitivities of 95 and 90 %.


Free PSA pro-PSA Prostate cancer PSA Screening 


Conflict of interest

There are no finance disclosures from any of the authors. None of the authors have conflicts of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported, and none have any financial support from industrial companies that are related with this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuto Ito
    • 1
  • Mai Miyakubo
    • 1
  • Yoshitaka Sekine
    • 1
  • Hidekazu Koike
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Matsui
    • 1
  • Yasuhiro Shibata
    • 1
  • Kazuhiro Suzuki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyGunma University Graduate School of MedicineMaebashiJapan

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