Benefits of Biochar for Improving Ion Contents, Cell Membrane Permeability, Leaf Water Status and Yield of Rice Under Saline–Sodic Paddy Field Condition

  • Cheng Ran
  • Anwari Gulaqa
  • Jing Zhu
  • Xiaowei Wang
  • Siqi Zhang
  • Yanqiu Geng
  • Liying Guo
  • Feng JinEmail author
  • Xiwen Shao


Saline–sodic is one of the major conditions threatening crop production. Biochar application could alleviate the adverse impacts of saline–sodic stress in crops. But its effect on reducing Na+ uptake in rice under saline–sodic paddy field condition remains unknown. This study evaluated the effect of biochar on ion contents, cell membrane permeability, leaf water status and yield of rice in saline–sodic paddy soil using a field experiment. The soil was amended with biochar at zero-biochar (B0), 33.75 t ha−1 (B1), 67.5 t ha−1 (B2), and 101.25 t ha−1 (B3), respectively. The results indicated that biochar addition significantly reduced Na+ concentration and Na+/K+ ratio, while it remarkably increased K+ concentration of rice plant. Furthermore, biochar application significantly decreased the leaf-relative electrical leakage and increased leaf water status, plant height, and chlorophyll content index. The rice biomass production and harvested yield were significantly increased. Therefore, biochar application to saline–sodic paddy soil has benefits to alleviate saline–sodic stress and increase rice yield in saline–sodic paddy soil.


Biochar saline–sodic stress Ion accumulation Osmotic stress 



The study was founded by National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300104, 2017YFD0300609), Jilin Province Science and Technology Development Programs (20160204011NY).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Abrishamkesh S, Gorji M, Asadi H, Bagheri-Marandi GH, Pourbabaee AA (2015) Effects of rice husk biochar application on the properties of alkaline soil and lentil growth. Plant Soil Environ 11:475–482Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad M, Rajapaksha AU, Lim JE, Zhang M, Bolan N, Mohan D, Vithanage M, Lee SS, Ok YS (2014) Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: a review. Chemosphere 99:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akhtar SS, Li G, Andersen MN, Liu F (2014) Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation. Agric Water Manag 138:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akhtar SS, Andersen MN, Liu F (2015a) Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato. J Agron Crop Sci 5:368–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akhtar SS, Andersen MN, Liu FL (2015b) Residual effects of biochar on improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat under salt stress. Agric Water Manag 158:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Karak GN (1997) Barley response to salt stress at varied levels of phosphorus. J Plant Nutr 20:1635–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bastías EI, González-Moro MB, González-Murua C (2004) Zea mays L. amylacea from the Lluta Valley (Arica-Chile) tolerates salinity stress when high levels of boron are available. Plant Soil 267:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Botella MA, Martinez V, Pardines J, Cerda A (1997) Salinity induced potassium deficiency in maize plants. J Plant Physiol 150:200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaganti VN, Crohn DM (2015) Evaluating the relative contribution of physiochemical and biological factors in ameliorating a saline-sodic soil amended with composts and biochar and leached with reclaimed water. Geoderma 259–260:45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chakraborty K, Bhaduri D, Meena HN, Kalariya K (2016) External potassium (K+) application improves salinity tolerance by promoting Na + -exclusion, K+ -accumulation and osmotic adjustment in contrasting peanut cultivars. Plant Physiol Biochem 103:143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen JH, Liu XY, Li LQ, Zheng JW, Qu JJ, Zheng JF, Zhang XH, Pan GX (2015) Consistent increase in abundance and diversity but variable change in community composition of bacteria in topsoil of rice paddy under short term biochar treatment across three sites from South China. Appl Soil Ecol 91:68–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chi CM, Zhao CW, Sun XJ, Wang ZC (2012) Reclamation of saline-sodic soil properties and improvement of rice (Oriza sativa L.) growth and yield using desulfurized gypsum in the west of Songnen Plain, northeast China. Geoderma 187–188:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dionisio-Sese ML, Tobita S (1998) Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress. Plant Sci 135:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farhangi-Abriz S, Torabian S (2017) Antioxidant enzyme and osmotic adjustment changes in bean seedlings as affected by biochar under salt stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 137:64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farhangi-Abriz S, Torabian S (2018) Effect of biochar on growth and ion contents of bean plant under saline condition. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:11556–11564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ghafoor A, Gill MA, Hassan A, Murtaza G, Qadir M (2001) Gypsum: an economical amendment for amelioration of saline-sodic waters and soils and for improving crop yields. Int J Agric Biol 9:266–275Google Scholar
  17. Hafsi C, Lakhdhar A, Rabhi M, Debez A, Abdelly C, Ouerghi Z (2007) Interactive effects of salinity and potassium availability on growth, water status, and ionic composition of Hordeum maritimum. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 170:469–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Katerji N, Van Hoorn JW, Hamdy A, Mastrorilli M (2004) Comparison of corn yield response to plant water stress caused by salinity and by drought. Agric Water Manag 65:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ladha JK, Kirk GJD, Bennett J, Peng S, Reddy CK, Reddy PM, Singh U (1998) Opportunities for increased nitrogen use-efficiency from improved lowland rice germplasm. Field Crops Res 56:41–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lehmann J, Rillig MC, Thies J, Masiello CA, Hockaday WC, Crowley D (2011) Biochar effects on soil biota—a review. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1812–1836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu XH, Zhang XC (2012) Effect of biochar on pH of alkaline soils in the Loess Plateau: results from incubation experiments. Int J Agric Biol 4:745–750Google Scholar
  22. Lu RK (2000) Methods of soil and agro-chemical analysis. China Agric Sci Tech Press, Beijing (In Chinese) Google Scholar
  23. Mae T, Ohira K (1981) The remobilization of nitrogen related to leaf growth and senescence in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Cell Physiol 22:1067–1074Google Scholar
  24. Melas GB, Ortiz O, Alacañiz JM (2017) Can biochar protect labile organic matter against mineralization in soil? Pedosphere 27:822–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mohan D, Sarswat A, Ok YS, Pittman CU Jr (2014) Organic and inorganic contaminants removal from water with biochar, a renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbent—a critical review. Bioresour Technol 160:191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell Environ 25:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nguyen TTN, Xu CY, Tahmasbian I, Che RX, Xu ZH, Zhou XH, Wallace HM, Shahla BH (2017) Effects of biochar on soil available inorganic nitrogen: a review and meta-analysis. Geoderma 15:79–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Oster JD, Shainberg I, Abrol IP (1999) Reclamation of salt affected soils. In: Skaggs RW, van Schilfgaarde J (eds) Agricultural drainage. ASA–CSSA–SSSA, Madison, pp 659–691Google Scholar
  29. Papakosta DK, Gagianas AA (1991) Nitrogen and dry matter accumulation, remobilization, and losses for Mediterranean wheat during grain filling. Agron J 83:864–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reddy MP, Vora AB (1986) Changes in pigment composition, hill reaction activityand saccharides metabolism in bajra (Pennisetum typhoides S&H) leaves under NaCl salinity. Photosynthetica 20:50–55Google Scholar
  31. Saifullah Dahlawi S, Naeem A, Rengel Z, Naidu R (2018) Biochar application for the remediation of salt-affected soils: challenges and opportunities. Sci Total Environ 625:320–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Samsuri AW, Sadegh-Zadeh F, Seh-Bardan BJ (2014) Characterization of biochar sproduced from oil palm and rice husks and their adsorption capacities for heavymetals. Int J Environ Sci Technol 11:967–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shafaqat A, Muhammad R, Muhammad FQ, Yong SO, Muhammad I, Muhammad R, Muhammad SA, Farhan H, Mohammad IAW, Ahmad NS (2017) Biochar soil amendment on alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a critical review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 14:12700–12712Google Scholar
  34. Thomas SC, Frye S, Gale N, Garmon M, Launchbury R, Machado N, Melamed S, Murray J, Petroff A, Winsborough C (2013) Biochar mitigates negative effects of salt additions on two herbaceous plant species. J Environ Manag 129:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Torabian S, Farhangi-Abriz S, Rathjen J (2018) Biochar and lignite affect H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities in root tonoplast and nutrient contents of mung bean under salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 129:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Uchimiya M, Bannon DI (2013) Solubility of lead and copper in biochar-amended small arms range soils: influence of soil organic carbon and pH. J Agric Food Chem 61:7679–7688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Hoorn JW, Katerji N, Hamdy A, Mastrorilli M (2001) Effect of salinity on yield and nitrogen uptake of four grain legumes and on biological nitrogen contribution from the soil. Agric Water Manag 51:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vitkova J, Kondrlova E, Rodny M, Surda P, Horak J (2017) Analysis of soil water content and crop yield after biochar application in field conditions. Plant Soil Environ 12:569–573Google Scholar
  39. Yang F, Li XQ, Xing Y, Cheng HG, Zhang LK, He YY, Wang B (2014) Effect of biochar amendment on nitrogen leaching in saline soil. J Agro-Environ Sci 33:972–977Google Scholar
  40. Yue Y, Guo WN, Lin QM, Li GT, Zhao XR (2016) Improving salt leaching in a simulated saline soil column by three biochars derived from rice straw (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower straw (Helianthus annuus), and cow manure. J Soil Water Conserv 71:467–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zemanová V, Břendová K, Pavlíková D, Kubátová P, Tlustoš P (2017) Effect of biochar application on the content of nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P) and amino acids in subsequently growing spinach and mustard. Plant Soil Environ 7:322–327Google Scholar
  42. Zhang WM, Meng J, Wang JY, Fan SX, Chen WF (2013) Effect of biochar on root morphological and physiological characteristics and yield in rice. Acta Agron Sin 39:1445–1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zheng H, Wang X, Chen L, Wang Z, Xia Y, Zhang Y, Wang H, Luo X, Xing B (2018) Enhanced growth of halophyte plants in biochar-amended coastal soil: roles of nutrient availability and rhizosphere microbial modulation. Plant, Cell Environ 41:517–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheng Ran
    • 1
  • Anwari Gulaqa
    • 1
  • Jing Zhu
    • 1
  • Xiaowei Wang
    • 1
  • Siqi Zhang
    • 1
  • Yanqiu Geng
    • 1
  • Liying Guo
    • 1
  • Feng Jin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiwen Shao
    • 1
  1. 1.Agronomy CollegeJinlin Agricultural UniversityChangchunChina

Personalised recommendations