Effects of CEPA and 1-MCP on Flower Bud Differentiation of Apple cv. ‘Nagafu No.2’ Grafted on Different Rootstocks

  • Wen-Fang Li
  • Juan Mao
  • Xin-Wen Li
  • Jing Su
  • Mohammed Mujitaba Dawuda
  • Zong-Huan Ma
  • Cun-Wu Zuo
  • Ze-Shan An
  • Bai-Hong ChenEmail author


The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) has a relatively long sapling stage which prevents fruit breeding. The understanding of the flowering system is important to improve breeding efficiency in apple. In this context, 2-year-old “Fuji” apple cv. “Nagafu No.2” trees were grafted onto dwarf self-rooted rootstock M.26, vigorous rootstock M. sieversii and interstock M.26/M. sieversii, respectively. Trees were sprayed with clean water (as controls), 800 mg·L−1 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA), and 2 µL·L−1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The results showed that CEPA significantly repressed the vegetative growth attributed to the increase of ABA and ZT synthesis, and the decrease of IAA synthesis in leaves and buds. However, there was no significant difference or significant inverse effect between 1-MCP and control. Furthermore, CEPA promoted flower formation, increased the flowering rate, and advanced the blossom period for 2 days compared with the control, which was accompanied by the accumulation of soluble sugar, glucose, and sucrose; and the increase of α-amylase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities; and the decrease of starch contents and sucrose synthase activities in leaves and buds. However, the blossom period was delayed for 2 days after spraying with 1-MCP. Finally, the expression of TFL1 was significantly repressed, whereas AP1 was significantly promoted in buds from M.26 and M.26/M. sieversii after spraying with CEPA, whereas the effect was not significant from M. sieversii. However, the expression levels of TFL1 and AP1 were not significantly different from the control after the application of 1-MCP. In spite of this, CEPA was more susceptible to easy-flowering M.26, followed by M.26/M. sieversii, and still less susceptible to difficult-flowering rootstock M. sieversii.


Apple CEPA 1-MCP Flower bud differentiation Carbohydrate Hormone Scion–stock combinations 


Author Contributions

B-HC designed experiments. W-FL drafted the work. W-FL, JM, X-WL, and JS carried out experiments and analyzed the data. MDD, Z-HM, C-WZ, and Z-SA critically revised the manuscript.


This research was financially supported by the Discipline Construction Fund Project of Gansu Agricultural University (GSAU-XKJS-2018-230), the  Fostering Foundation for the Excellent Ph.D. Dissertation of Gansu Agricultural University (2017002), and the Key Scientific Technology Research Projects of Gansu Province (GPCK2013-2).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

344_2018_9895_MOESM1_ESM.doc (28 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 28 KB)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of HorticultureGansu Agricultural UniversityLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Horticulture, FoAUniversity for Development StudiesTamaleGhana

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