Effect of Cytokinin and Auxin Treatments on Morphogenesis, Terpenoid Biosynthesis, Photosystem Structural Organization, and Endogenous Isoprenoid Cytokinin Profile in Artemisia alba Turra In Vitro
Developmental pattern modification in essential oil bearing Artemisia alba Turra was obtained by exogenous plant growth regulator (PGRs) treatments in vitro. Enhanced rooting (in PGR-free and auxin-treated plants) led to elevation of the monoterpenoid/sesquiterpenoid ratio in the essential oils of aerials. On the contrary, root inhibition and intensive callusogenesis [combined cytokinin (CK) and auxin treatments] reduced this ratio more than twice, significantly enhancing sesquiterpenoid production. Both morphogenic types displayed sesquiterpenoid domination in the underground tissues, which however differed qualitatively from the sesquiterpenoids of the aerials, excluding the hypothesis of their shoot-to-root translocation and implying the possible role of another signaling factor, affecting terpenoid biosynthesis. Inhibited rooting also resulted in a significant drop of endogenous isoprenoid CK bioactive-free bases and ribosides as well as CK N-glycoconjugates and in decreased trans-zeatin (transZ):cis-zeatin (cisZ) ratio in the aerials. Marked impairment of the structural organization of the photosynthetic apparatus and chloroplast architecture were also observed in samples with suppressed rooting. It is well known that in the plant cell monoterpenoid and transZ-type CKs biogenesis are spatially bound to plastids, while sesquiterpenoid and cisZ production are compartmented in the cytosol. In the present work, interplay between the biosynthesis of terpenoids and CK bioactive free bases and ribosides in A. alba in vitro via possible moderation of chloroplast structure has been hypothesized.
KeywordsArtemisia alba Turra in vitro Cis- and trans-zeatin Endogenous cytokinins Photosystem II and thylakoid morphology Plant growth regulators Terpenoid profile of the essential oil
We are thankful to the Swiss Enlargement Contribution in the framework of the Bulgarian-Swiss Research Programme (BSRP, Grant Nos. IZEBZ0_142989; DO2-1153) and Dr. Evelyn Wolfram for PhytoBalk project coordination, the Joint Scientific Research Project between the CAS and BAS (Reg. No. 17-17); the Czech Science Foundation (16-14649S) and we are very grateful to Prof Alessandra Braca for critical reading of the manuscript and complex revision of the scientific English.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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