Skip to main content
Log in

Role of Brassinosteroids, Ethylene, Abscisic Acid, and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Mango Fruit Ripening

  • Published:
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Rapid ripening of mango fruit limits its distribution to distant markets. To better understand and perhaps manipulate this process, we investigated the role of plant hormones in modulating climacteric ripening of ‘Kensington Pride’ mango fruits. Changes in endogenous levels of brassinosteroids (BRs), abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and ethylene and the respiration rate, pulp firmness, and skin color were determined at 2-day intervals during an 8-day ripening period at ambient temperature (21 ± 1°C). We also investigated the effects of exogenously applied epibrassinolide (Epi-BL), (+)-cis, trans-abscisic acid (ABA), and an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), on fruit-ripening parameters such as respiration, ethylene production, fruit softening, and color. Climacteric ethylene production and the respiration peak occurred on the fourth day of ripening. Castasterone and brassinolide were present in only trace amounts in fruit pulp throughout the ripening period. However, the exogenous application of Epi-BL (45 and 60 ng g−1 FW) advanced the onset of the climacteric peaks of ethylene production and respiration rate by 2 and 1 day, respectively, and accelerated fruit color development and softening during the fruit-ripening period. The endogenous level of ABA rose during the climacteric rise stage on the second day of ripening and peaked on the fourth day of ripening. Exogenous ABA promoted fruit color development and softening during ripening compared with the control and the trend was reversed in NDGA-treated fruit. The endogenous IAA level in the fruit pulp was higher during the preclimacteric minimum stage and declined during the climacteric and postclimacteric stages. We speculate that higher levels of endogenous IAA in fruit pulp during the preclimacteric stage and the accumulation of ABA prior to the climacteric stage might switch on ethylene production that triggers fruit ripening. Whilst exogenous Epi-BL promoted fruit ripening, endogenous measurements suggest that changes in BRs levels are unlikely to modulate mango fruit ripening.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Brecht JK, Yahia EM (2009) Postharvest physiology. In: Litz RE (ed) The mango: botany, production and uses. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 484–528

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Chen KS, Li F, Zhang SL, Ross GS (1999) Role of abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in kiwifruit ripening. Acta Hortic Sin 26:81–86

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen JY, Chen M, Gan L (2005) Effects of ethephon and ABA treatments on physiology of ‘Jinkui’ kiwifruit during its ripening and softening. Acta Agric 27:6–11

    Google Scholar 

  • Clouse SD (2002) Brassinosteroids: plant counterparts to animal steroids hormones? VitamHorm 65:195–223

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cua AU, Lizada MCC (1990) Ethylene production in the ‘Caraboa’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit during maturation and ripening. Acta Hortic 269:169–179

    Google Scholar 

  • Dang KTH, Singh Z, Swinny EE (2008) Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit. J Agric Food Chem 56:1361–1370

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gomez-Lim MA (1993) Mango fruit ripening: physiology and molecular biology. Acta Hortic 341:484–499

    Google Scholar 

  • Hong SJ, Lee SK (1993) Changes in endogenous plant hormones during ripening of tomato fruits. Acta Hortic 343:220–223

    Google Scholar 

  • Jager CE, Symons GM, Ross JJ, Reid JB (2008) Do brassinosteroids mediate the water stress response? Physiol Plant 133:417–425

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kitamura T, Itamura H, Fukushima T (1983) Ripening changes in respiration, ethylene emanation and abscisic acid content of plum fruit. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 52:325–331

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kochankov VG, Rudnicki RM, Kepczynski J, Machnik J (1975) Effect of ripening and ethylene on the level of free and bound abscisic acid in “Conference” pear fruits. Fruit Sci Rpt 2:13–21

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kondo S, Gemma H (1993) Relationship between abscisic acid (ABA) content and maturation of the sweet cherry. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 62:63–68

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kondo S, Sungcome K, Setha S, Hirai N (2004) ABA catabolism during development and storage in mangoes: influence of jasmonates. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 76:891–896

    Google Scholar 

  • Koyama K, Sadamatsu K, Goto-Yamamoto N (2010) Abscisic acid stimulated ripening and gene expression in berry skins of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape. Funct Integr Genomics 10:367–381

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lalel HJD, Singh Z, Tan SC (2003) The role of ethylene in mango fruit aroma volatiles biosynthesis. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 78:485–496

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lohani S, Trivedi PK, Nath P (2004) Changes in activities of cell wall hydrolyses during ethylene-induced ripening in banana: effect of 1-MCP, ABA and IAA. Postharvest Biol Technol 31:119–126

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mann SS (1985) Effects of ethylene and acetylene on the ripening of mango fruits. Acta Hortic 158:409–412

    Google Scholar 

  • Montoya T, Nomura T, Yokota T, Farrar K, Harrison K, Jones JGD, Kaneta T, Kamiya Y, Szekeres M, Bishop GJ (2005) Patterns of dwarf expression and brassinosteroid accumulation in tomato reveal the importance of brassinosteroid synthesis during fruit development. Plant J 42:262–269

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nair S, Singh Z (2003) Pre-storage ethrel dip reduces chilling injury, enhances respiration rate, ethylene production and improves fruit quality of ‘Kensington Pride’ mango. Food, Agric Environ 1:93–97

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nair S, Singh Z, Tan SC (2004) Chilling injury in relation to ethylene biosynthesis in ‘Kensington Pride’ mango fruit. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 79:82–90

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nakano R, Yonemori K, Sugiura A, Kataoka I (1997) Effect of giberellic acid and abscisic acid on fruit respiration in relation to final swell and maturation in persimmon. Acta Hortic 436:203–214

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen H, McConchie R, Hofman P, Smith L, Stubbings B, Adkins M (2002) Effect of ethylene and ripening temperatures on the skin color and flesh characteristics of ripe ‘Kensington Pride’ mango fruit. Acta Hortic 575:635–642

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Notodimedjo S (2000) Effect of GA3, NAA and CPPU on fruit retention yield and quality of mango (cv. Arumanis) in East Java. Acta Hortic 509:587–600

    Google Scholar 

  • Palejwala VV, Amin B, Parikh HR, Modi VV (1988) Role of abscisic acid in the ripening of mango. Acta Hortic 231:662–667

    Google Scholar 

  • Parikh HR, Nair GM, Modi VV (1990) Some structural changes during ripening of mangoes (Mangifera indica var. Alphonso) by abscisic acid treatment. Ann Bot 65:121–127

    Google Scholar 

  • Ross GS, Elder PA, McWha JA, Pearce D, Pharis RP (1987) The development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for abscisic acid. Plant Physiol 85:46–50

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ross JJ, Reid JB, Swain SM, Hasan O, Poole AT, Hedden P, Willis CL (1995) Genetic regulation of gibberellin deactivation in Pisum. Plant J 21:547–552

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ruan Y, Sheng JP, Liu KL, Shen L (2005) Relationship between abscisic acid and ethylene in seed and pericarp during tomato ripening. J China Agric Uni 10:15–19

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schlagnhaufer C, Arteca RN, Yopp JH (1984) A brassinosteroid–cytokinin interaction on ethylene production by etiolated mung bean segments. Physiol Plant 60:347–350

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Seymour GB, Taylor JE, Tucker GA (1993) Biochemistry of fruit ripening. Chapman and Hall, London

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Sheng JP, Luo YB, Shen L (2000) The content of hormones in antisense ACS tomato as compared with tomato cv. Lichun. Sci Agric Sin 33:43–48

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Singh Z, Janes J (2001) Effects of postharvest application of ethephon on fruit ripening, quality and shelf life of mango under modified atmosphere packaging. Acta Hortic 553:599–602

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Singh Z, Singh SP (2011) Mango. In: Rees D, Orchard J (eds) Crop post-harvest: science and technology: perishables, vol 3. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, pp 108–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Symons GM, Reid JB (2003) Hormone levels and response during de-etiolation in pea. Planta 216:422–431

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Symons GM, Davies C, Shavrukov Y, Dry IB, Reid JB, Thomas MR (2006) Grapes on steroids. Brassinosteroids are involved in grape berry ripening. Plant Physiol 140:150–158

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vardhini BV, Rao SSR (2002) Acceleration of ripening of tomato pericarp discs by brassinosteroids. Phytochemistry 61:843–847

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vendrell M, Palomer X (1997) Hormonal control of fruit ripening in climacteric fruits. Acta Hortic 463:325–334

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Watada AE, Herner RC, Kader AA, Romani RJ, Staby GL (1984) Terminology for the description of developmental stages of horticultural crops. HortScience 19:20–21

    Google Scholar 

  • Wavhal KN, Athale PW (1988) Studies to prolong shelf-life of mango fruits. Acta Hortic 231:771–775

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu M, Chen KS, Jia HJ, Xu CJ, Zhang SL (2003) Changes in endogenous abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and ethylene during postharvest ripening period of peach fruit. J Fruit Sci 20:157–160

    Google Scholar 

  • Zaharah SS, Singh Z (2011a) Post-harvest fumigation with nitric oxide at the pre-climacteric and climacteric rise stages influences ripening and quality in mango fruit. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 86:645–653

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zaharah SS, Singh Z (2011b) Postharvest nitric oxide fumigation alleviates chilling injury, delays fruit ripening and maintains quality in cold stored ‘Kensington Pride’ mango. Postharvest Biol Technol 60:202–210

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang M, Yuan B, Leng P (2009) The role of ABA in triggering ethylene biosynthesis and ripening of tomato fruit. J Expt Bot 60:1579–1588

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou YC, Tang YL, Tan XJ, Guo JY (1996) Effects of exogenous ABA, GA3 and cell-wall-degrading enzyme activity, carotenoid content in ripening mango fruit. Acta Phytophysiol Sin 22:421–426

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhu BZ, Wei SC, Luo YB (2003) Relationship between calcium and ABA in ethylene synthesis in tomato fruit. J Agric Biotechnol 11:359–364

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

S.S. Zaharah gratefully acknowledges the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for financial support and Universiti Putra Malaysia for study leave during her PhD studies. She is also grateful to Curtin University, Western Australia, for awarding a Completion Scholarship during her final year of PhD study. We acknowledge Mrs. S. Petersen and Mr. I. Iberahim for their technical support.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zora Singh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zaharah, S.S., Singh, Z., Symons, G.M. et al. Role of Brassinosteroids, Ethylene, Abscisic Acid, and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Mango Fruit Ripening. J Plant Growth Regul 31, 363–372 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-011-9245-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-011-9245-5

Keywords

Navigation