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Effect of Cyclanilide on Auxin Activity

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Abstract

Cyclanilide is a plant growth regulator that is registered for use in cotton at different stages of growth, to either suppress vegetative growth (in combination with mepiquat chloride) or accelerate senescence (enhance defoliation and boll opening, used in combination with ethephon). This research was conducted to study the mechanism of action of cyclanilide: its potential interaction with auxin (IAA) transport and signaling in plants. The activity of cyclanilide was compared with the activity of the auxin transport inhibitors NPA and TIBA. Movement of [3H]IAA was inhibited in etiolated corn coleoptiles by 10 μM cyclanilide, NPA, and TIBA, which demonstrated that cyclanilide affected polar auxin transport. Although NPA inhibited [3H]IAA efflux from cells in etiolated zucchini hypocotyls, cyclanilide had no effect. NPA did not inhibit the influx of IAA into cells in etiolated zucchini hypocotyls, whereas cyclanilide inhibited uptake 25 and 31% at 10 and 100 μM, respectively. Also, NPA inhibited the gravitropic response in tomato roots (85% at 1 μM) more than cyclanilide (30% at 1 μM). Although NPA inhibited tomato root growth (30% at 1 μM), cyclanilide stimulated root growth (165% of control at 5 μM). To further characterize cyclanilide action, plasma membrane fractions from etiolated zucchini hypocotyls were obtained and the binding of NPA, IAA, and cyclanilide studied. Cyclanilide inhibited the binding of [3H]NPA and [3H]IAA with an IC50 of 50 μM for both. NPA did not affect the binding of IAA, nor did IAA affect the binding of NPA. Kinetic analysis indicated that cyclanilide is a noncompetitive inhibitor of both NPA and IAA binding, with inhibition constants (K i) of 40 and 2.3 μM, respectively. These data demonstrated that cyclanilide interacts with auxin-regulated processes via a mechanism that is distinct from other auxin transport inhibitors. This research identifies a possible mechanism of action for cyclanilide when used as a plant growth regulator.

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Acknowledgment

The authors thank Bayer Crop Science (formerly Rhone Poulenc Ag. Co) for partial funding of this research.

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Correspondence to James D. Burton.

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Burton, J.D., Pedersen, M.K. & Coble, H.D. Effect of Cyclanilide on Auxin Activity. J Plant Growth Regul 27, 342–352 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-008-9062-7

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