Strengthening effect of super typhoon Rammasun (2014) on upwelling and cold eddies in the South China Sea

Abstract

Typhoon is one of the frequent natural disasters in coastal regions of China. As shown in many studies, the impact of typhoons on the South China Sea (SCS) should not be overlooked. Super typhoon Rammasun (2014) was studied that formed in the northwestern Pacific, passed through the SCS, then landed in the Leizhou Peninsula. Remote sensing data and model products were used to analyze the spatiotemporal variations of the cold eddies, upwelling, sea surface temperature, mixed layer depth, rainfall, sea surface salinity, suspended sediment concentration, and surface-level anomaly. Results confirm the constant presence of upwelling and cold eddies in the southeast of Hainan (north of the Zhongsha Islands) and the southeast of Vietnam in July. In addition, we found the strengthening effect of super typhoon Rammasun on the upwelling and cold eddies in the SCS. The major reasons for the continuous decrease in sea surface temperature and the slow regaining of seawater temperature were the enhanced upwelling and vertical mixing caused by the typhoon. The increasing of the surface runoff in the Indochina Peninsula was mainly affected by the typhoon, with some contribution for the southeast of Vietnam’s cold eddy and upwelling.

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Data Availability Statement

All data generated and/or analyzed during this study are available from the first author by request. Email: xszm1010@foxmail.com.

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Acknowledgment

We thank two anonymous reviewers whose valuable comments and suggestions have helped to improve the manuscript. Daily SLA data with a one-third degree spatial resolution were downloaded from the AVISO. The SST and surface wind data were kindly provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The SSS, sea temperature, salinity, and MLD data were obtained from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model of the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation. Rainfall data were retrieved from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. The SSC data were obtained by the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer satellite provided by the Guangdong Ocean Remote Sensing and Information Engineering Technology Research Center of Guangdong Ocean University.

“Changes in the hydrodynamic characteristics of the upper layer of the South China Sea during the period of super typhoon Ram” by Dongyang FU, Xiaolong ZHANG, Xue LI, Dazhao LIU, Guo YU, and Huabing XU. © Dongyang FU, Xiaolong ZHANG, Xue LI, Dazhao LIU, Guo YU, and Huabing XU 2020, taken from Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, © International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm, reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd, http://www.tandfonline.com on behalf of the society.

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Correspondence to Dongyang Fu.

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Supported by the Key Projects of the Guangdong Education Department (No. 2019KZDXM019), the Fund of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhanjiang) (No. ZJW-2019-08), the High-level Marine Discipline Team Project of Guangdong Ocean University (No. 002026002009), and the “First Class” Discipline Construction Platform Project in 2019 of Guangdong Ocean University (No. 231419026)

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Li, X., Zhang, X., Fu, D. et al. Strengthening effect of super typhoon Rammasun (2014) on upwelling and cold eddies in the South China Sea. J. Ocean. Limnol. 39, 403–419 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-020-9239-x

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Keyword

  • cold eddies
  • sea surface temperature (SST)
  • South China Sea (SCS)
  • typhoon Rammasun
  • upwelling