Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is the main diseases affected the development of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture industries. To better observe the changes in the sea cucumber A. japonicus with skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) and understand the pathogenesis of the disease, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in coelomic fluid were detected using the Assay Kit and metabolites in the body wall were assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The results indicated that level of MDA was increased during SUS compared with healthy individuals (P<0.01), but activities of SOD and CAT were reduced (P<0.05). In metabolomics analysis, metabolites, such as adenosine, choline, betaine aldehyde, palmitic acid, and taurine, were found to be upregulated and 2-oxoadipic acid, anthranilic acid (vitamin L1), thioetheramide-PC, cholesterol-3-sulfate, and pentadecanoic acid were downregulated (VIP>1 and P<0.1). Pathway enrichment analysis indicated most enrichment of KEGG pathways were mainly related to energy metabolism, immunity, and osmoregulation such as ABC transporters, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. Our study reflected the difference in enzyme activity and metabolites between A. japonicus with SUS and those without, which will provide reference data for investigating SUS.
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Data Availability Statement
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.
Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31772849), the Scientific Research Funding Project of Liaoning Provincial Department of Education in 2019 (No. DL201901), and the Program for Liaoning Innovative Research Team in University (No. LT2019003)
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Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Liu, X. et al. Metabolomics analysis for skin ulceration syndrome of Apostichopus japonicus based on UPLC/Q-TOF MS. J. Ocean. Limnol. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-020-0205-4
- Apostichopus japonicus
- skin ulceration syndrome (SUS)
- differential metabolites