The modern landscape patterns of islands usually show obvious spatial heterogeneity and complex ecological effects due to the vulnerability of ecosystems with natural characteristics under increasing human activities. In this work, we studied the variation in landscape pattern of the Miaodao Archipelago in Bohai Sea, North China, from 1990 to 2019, and an evaluation index system was established to explore the impacts of natural conditions and human disturbances on the ecological effects in the pressure-state-response (PSR) framework. Empirical analysis was conducted on the natural conditions, human disturbances, and ecological effects. The results show that forest was the main component of the landscape pattern in the archipelago. Both of the areas of forest and construction land were increasing, and the areas of cropland and grassland were declining. Other landscape types changed slightly, and the landscape fragmentation was increasing. The natural condition exhibited positive effects while human disturbance showed negative effects on the local ecology. Human disturbances come mainly from shoreline use while the natural conditions were mainly from the elevation change. The ecological effects were resulted mainly from the net primary productivity and water yield.
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Supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFD0900806), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. U1806214), and the landscape pattern analysis and remote sensing interpretation work were supported by the Shandong Ocean Special Fund “Ocean Health” Key Science and Technology Innovation Project (No. 2018SDKJ05)
Data Availability Statement
Radiation calibration, band blending, and island contour extraction were conducted on the satellite remote sensing images of 1990 (LANDSAT 5), 2000 (LANDSAT 5), 2010 (LANDSAT 5), and 2019 (LANDSAT 8) with the spatial resolution of 30 m. The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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Shi, H., Yin, L. & Gao, M. Landscape changes and their ecological effects of Miaodao Archipelago with human disturbances and under natural conditions in the past 30 years. J. Ocean. Limnol. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-020-0177-4
- Miaodao Archipelago
- landscape pattern
- ecological effect
- structural equation modeling