Microplastics pollution and seawater temperature rise have been the major environmental issues, threatening the survival and biodiversity of marine organisms. This study evaluated the combined effect of temperature and polystyrene microplastics (MP) on Artemia, a filter-feeding crustacean that is widely used for environmental toxicology studies. Brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were exposed to three MP concentrations (0, 0.2, and 2.0 mg/L) and three temperatures (22, 26, and 30 °C) for 14 d. In general, higher MP concentration and temperature led to a decreased survival rate and growth. Two-way ANOVA analysis indicated that the survival rate of Artemia was significantly impacted by both MP concentration and temperature (P<0.05), but there was no significant interaction between two factors (P>0.05). Growth of Artemia was significantly impacted by temperature (P<0.05), and with a significant interaction between two factors (P<0.05). Furthermore, the enzymatic activity, intestinal histological analyses, and immune gene expression were determined for Artemia reared at 30 °C with three MP concentrations (0, 0.2, and 2.0 mg/L). The results showed that 2.0 mg/L MP resulted in reduced Artemia intestinal microvilli and exfoliated epithelia cells, significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP) activity (P<0.05) and immune-related gene ADRA1B and CREB3 expression, revealing that higher MP concentration could induce oxidative and immunological stress on Artemia at 30 °C. Overall, our study suggests that MP and temperature have combined adverse effect on Artemia, especially at relatively high temperature and polystyrene MP concentration. These findings are important to understand the potential ecological risks posed by these two factors on the organisms in marine environment.
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Supported by the Science and Technology Project of Tianjin Municipal (No. 17ZXZYNC00060), the Yangtze Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of Ministry of Education of China (No. IRT_17R81), the National Science Foundation of Tianjin (No. 18JCQNJC78500), and the Foundation of Tianjin Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Chemistry (Tianjin University of Science & Technology), China (No. 201704)
Conflict of Interest
The authors confi rm that this article content has no confl ict of interest.
Data Availability Statement
The research data used in this study can be shared upon request.
The study protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of Tianjin University of Science and Technology.
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Han, X., Zheng, Y., Dai, C. et al. Effect of polystyrene microplastics and temperature on growth, intestinal histology and immune responses of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. J. Ocean. Limnol. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-020-0118-2
- Artemia franciscana
- combined effect