The impact of coastal reclamation on tidal and storm surge level in Sanmen Bay, China

  • Wankang Yang
  • Xingru FengEmail author
  • Baoshu Yin


In recent years, fast economic development demands for more land use and thus many reclamation projects are initiated around the Sanmen Bay, Zhejiang, SE China in the East China Sea, for which tidal and storm surge levels are reassessed. A two-dimensional numerical model based on an advanced circulation model (ADCIRC) was applied to evaluate the impact of reclamation projects on tidal and storm surge levels in the bay. The results show that the shoreline relocation and topographic change had opposite effects on tidal heights. Shoreline relocation decreased the tidal amplitude, while siltation caused topographic change and increased the amplitude. Such variations of the amplitude were significant in the top areas of Sanmen Bay. Three types of typhoon paths were selected for a case study to investigate the impacts of shoreline relocation and topographic change on storm surge level. Results show that the maximum increase in storm surge level due to shoreline relocation was less than 0.06 m. The rise of peak surge level due to the change of topography was significant and the peak surge level rose when siltation increased. The maximum surge level rise occurred in the path of northwest landing typhoons, which exceeded 0.24 m at the top of the bay. The rise in peak surge level can potentially lead to severe damages and losses in Sanmen Bay and more attention needs to be paid to this problem of shoreline change in the future.


Sanmen Bay reclamation project tidal height peak surge level 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors thank Dr. Leonie Seabrook from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China ( for English editing of the manuscript draft.


  1. Arkema K K, Guannel G, Verutes G, Wood S A, Guerry A, Ruckelshaus M, Kareiva P, Lacayo M, Silver J M. 2013. Coastal habitats shield people and property from sea-level rise and storms. Nature Climate Change, 3(10): 913–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benavente J, Del Río L, Gracia F J, Martínez-del-Pozo J A. 2006. Coastal flooding hazard related to storms and coastal evolution in Valdelagrana spit (Cadiz Bay Natural Park, SW Spain). Continental Shelf Research, 26(9): 1 061–1 076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cearreta A, Irabien M J, Ulibarri I, Yusta I, Croudace I W, Cundy A B. 2002. Recent salt marsh development and natural regeneration of reclaimed areas in the Plentzia estuary, N. Spain. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 54(5): 863–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen X Y, Zhang J, Ma Y, Cui T W. 2015. Monitoring and analysis of coastline changes of the Sanmen Bay with remote sensing during the past 40 years. Marine Sciences, 39(2): 43–48. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  5. Cheong S M, Silliman B, Wong P P, Van Wesenbeeck B, Kim C K, Guannel G. 2013. Coastal adaptation with ecological engineering. Nature Climate Change, 3(9): 787–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crain C M, Halpern B S, Beck M W, Kappel C V. 2009. Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1162(1): 39–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ding Y M, Wei H. 2017. Modeling the impact of land reclamation on storm surges in Bohai Sea, China. Natural Hazards, 85(1): 559–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Du P J, Hu K L, Kong Y Z, Ding P X. 2007. Application of ECOMSED model to the simulation of Hangzhou Bay tide current. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 29(1): 1–16. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  9. Duarte C M, Kennedy H, Marbà N, Hendriks I. 2013. Assessing the capacity of seagrass meadows for carbon burial: current limitations and future strategies. Ocean & Coastal Management, 83: 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gao G D, Wang X H, Bao X W. 2014. Land reclamation and its impact on tidal dynamics in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 151: 285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garratt J R. 1977. Review of drag coefficients over oceans and continents. Monthly Weather Review, 105(7): 915–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guo Y K, Zhang J S, Zhang L X, Shen Y M. 2009. Computational investigation of typhoon-induced storm surge in Hangzhou Bay, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 85(4): 530–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoeksema R J. 2007. Three stages in the history of land reclamation in the Netherlands. Irrigation and Drainage, 56(S1): S113–S126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holland G J. 1980. An analytic model of the wind and pressure profiles in hurricanes. Monthly Weather Review, 108(8): 1 212–1 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hubbert G D, Holland G J, Leslie L M, Manton M J. 1991. A real-time system for forecasting tropical cyclone storm surges. Weather and Forecasting, 6(1): 86–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Idier D, Dumas F, Muller H. 2012. Tide-surge interaction in the English Channel. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12(12): 3 709–3 718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kennish M J. 2001. Coastal salt marsh systems in the U.S.: a review of anthropogenic impacts. Journal of Coastal Research, 17(3): 731–748.Google Scholar
  18. Kumar A, Jayappa K S. 2009. Long and short-term shoreline changes along Mangalore Coast, India. International Journal of Environmental Research, 3(2): 177–188.Google Scholar
  19. Liu X C, Lu Y J, Pan L H, Wu J W. 2006. Tidal current numerical simulating and water exchange research in Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 21(2): 171–180. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  20. Proctor R, Flather R A. 1989. Storm surge prediction in the Bristol Channel—the floods of 13 December 1981. Continental Shelf Research, 9(10): 889–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tang Y M, Sanderson B, Holland G, Grimshaw R. 1996. A numerical study of storm surges and tides, with application to the North Queensland Coast. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26(12): 2 700–2 711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Temmerman S, Meire P, Bouma T J, Herman P M J, Ysebaert T, De Vriend H J. 2013. Ecosystem-based coastal defence in the face of global change. Nature, 504(7478): 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tian B, Wu W T, Yang Z Q, Zhou Y X. 2016. Drivers, trends, and potential impacts of long-term coastal reclamation in China from 1985 to 2010. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 170: 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tian B, Zhou Y X, Zhang L Q, Yuan L. 2008. Analyzing the habitat suitability for migratory birds at the Chongming Dongtan nature reserve in Shanghai, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 80(2): 296–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Westerink J J, Luettich R A, Blain C A, Scheffner N W. 1993. ADCIRC: an advanced three-dimensional circulation model for shelves, coasts, and estuaries. Report 2: user’s manual for ADCIRC-2DDI. Coastal Engineering Research Center, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA.Google Scholar
  26. Willoughby H E, Rahn M E. 2004. Parametric representation of the primary hurricane vortex. Part I: observations and evaluation of the Holland (1980) model. Monthly Weather Review, 132(12): 3 033–3 048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Xie Y L, Huang S C, Wang R F, Zhao X. 2007. Numerical simulation of effects of reclamation in Qiantang Estuary on storm surge at Hangzhou Bay. The Ocean Engineering, 25(3): 61–67. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  28. Ying M, Zhang W, Yu H, Lu X Q, Feng J X, Fan Y X, Zhu Y T, Chen D Q. 2014. An overview of the China meteorological administration tropical cyclone database. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 31(2): 287–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yu J, Bao X W, Ding Y, Zhang W, Zhou L L. 2016. The impact of large-scale reclamation on hydro-dynamic environment-A case study of Xinghua Bay. Journal of Ocean University of China, 15(4): 583–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhu Z N, Zhu X H, Zhang C Z, Fan X P, Liao G H, Xuan J L, Long Y, Ma Y L, Zhao R X, He Z G, Zhang T, Zhang X M. 2015. An observational experiment of coastal acoustic tomography to map the structure of tidal currents in Sanmen Bay, China. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 58(5): 1 742–1 753. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of OceanologyChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Second Institute of OceanographyMinistry of Natural ResourcesHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Center for Ocean Mega-ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesQingdaoChina
  5. 5.Laboratory for Ocean Dynamics and ClimateQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations