Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 736–744 | Cite as

Estimates on age, growth, and mortality of Gymnocypris firmispinatus (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) in the Anning River, China

  • Baoshan Ma
  • Yuanyuan Nie
  • Kaijin WeiEmail author
  • Bin Xu
  • Xiangyun Zhu
  • Jin Xu
Aquaculture and Fisheries


The age, growth, and mortality of Gymnocypris firmispinatus were studied by 582 individuals that collected between July 2015 and June 2016 from the tributaries of the Anning River, China. The total length (TL) ranged from 27 mm to 242 mm, total weight (W) ranged from 0.2 g to 148.2 g. The relationship of total length and weight was expressed as W =7.754×10-6 TL3.304 for the total samples. The age classes of males were 1–9 a, and that of females were 1–13 a. The von Bertalanffy functions based on otolith readings and observed length data were Lt♂ =198.6(1–e-0.094 ( t +3.497) ), and Lt♀ =289.3(1–e-0.089 ( t +1.109) ). The total mortality ( Z ) of male and female G. firmispinatus was estimated as 0.73/a and 0.40/a, respectively. The natural mortality ( M ) was evaluated as 0.25/a for males and 0.20/a for females, fishing mortality ( F ) was 0.35/a for males and 0.16/a for females. The exploitation ratio of the population was 0.66/a for males and 0.50/a for females. It was concluded that the growth of the fish is relatively slower than other congeneric fishes. The population of G. firmispinatus in the tributaries of the Anning River might be in over-exploitation under the current fishing intensity.


otolith growth von Bertalanffy model mortality Gymnocypris firmispinatus 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beamish R J, Fournier D A. 1981. A method for comparing the precision of a set of age determinations. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 38 (8): 982–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beamish R J, McFarlane G A. 1983. The forgotten requirement for age validation in fisheries biology. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 112 (6): 735–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beverton R J H, Holt S J. 1957. On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations. Fisheries Investigation Series 2, Volume 19, UK Ministry of Agriculture. Fisheries and Food, London, UK.Google Scholar
  4. Campana S E, Thorrold S R. 2001. Otoliths, increments, and elements: keys to a comprehensive understanding of fish populations? Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58 (1): 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao W X, Chen Y Y, Wu Y F, Zhu S Q. 1981. Origin and evolution of schizothoracine fishes in relation to the upheaval of the Xizang Plateau. In: Tibetan Expedition Team of the Chinese Academy of Science ed. Studies on the Period, Amplitude and Type of the Uplift of the Qinghai–Xizang Plateau. Science Press, Beijing. p.118–130. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. Cao W X. 2017. Issues of ecological protection facing cascade hydroelectric dam development in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. In: Zhang C H, Wang G Q eds. The Frontiers of Water Science and Engineering (Part I). Science Press, Beijing. p.284–301. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Cazorla A L, Sidorkewicj N. 2008. Age and growth of the largemouth perch Percichthys colhuapiensis in the Negro River, Argentine Patagonia. Fish. Res., 92 (2–3): 169–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman D G, Robson D S. 1960. The analysis of a catch curve. Biometrics, 16 (3): 354–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen D Q, Zhang X, Xiong F, Liu S P, Tang H Y. 2006. Studies on growth characteristics of Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii. Acta. Zool. Sin., 30 (2): 173–179. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  10. Chen Y F, Cao W X. 2000. Schizothoracinae. In: Yue PQ ed. Fauna Sinica Osteicthtyes Cypriniformes III. Science Press, Beijing. p.273–388 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  11. Chen Y F, He D K, Cao W X, Duan Z H. 2002. Growth of Selincuo Schizothoracini ( Gymnocypris selincuoensis ) in Selincuo Lake, Tibeten Platean. Acta. Zool. Sin., 48 (5): 667–676. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  12. Duan Z H, Sun J Y. 1999. Studies on the age and growth of Pelteobagrus vachelli (Richardson). Acta Hydrobiol. Sin., 23 (6): 617–623. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  13. Granada V P, Masuda Y, Matsuoka T. 2004. Age and growth of the yellowbelly threadfin bream Nemipterus bathybius in Kagoshima Bay, southern Japan. Fish. Sci., 70 (3): 497–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gulland J A. 1971. The fish resources of the ocean. Fishing News, West Byfleet.Google Scholar
  15. Huo B, Ma B S, Xie C X, Duan Y J, Yang X F, Huang H P. 2015. Stock assessment and management implications of an endemic fish, Oxygymnocypris stewartii, in the Yarlung Zangbo River in Tibet, China. Zool. Stud., 54: 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huo B, Xie C X, Ma B S, Yang X F, Huang H P. 2012. Age and growth of Oxygymnocypris stewartii (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) in the Yarlung Tsangpo River, Tibet, China. Zool. Stud., 51 (2): 185–194.Google Scholar
  17. Li X Q, Chen Y F. 2009. Age structure, growth and mortality estimates of an endemic Ptychobarbus dipogon (Regan, 1905) (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) in the Lhasa River, Tibet. Environ. Biol. Fish., 86 (1): 97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ma B S, Nie Y Y, Wei K J, Xu B, Gan W X, Zhu X Y, Xu J, Deng L J, Yao Y H. 2017a. Precision of age estimations from otolith, vertebra, and opercular bone of Gymnocypris firmispinatus (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Anning River, China. Acta Ichthyol. Piscat., 47 (4): 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ma B S, Xie C X, Huo B, Yang X F, Huang H P. 2010. Age and growth of a long–lived fish Schizothorax o’connori in the Yarlung Tsangpo River, Tibet. Zool. Stud., 49 (6): 749–759.Google Scholar
  20. Ma B S, Xie C X, Huo B, Yang X F, Li P. 2011. Age validation, and comparison of otolith, vertebra and opercular bone for estimating age of Schizothorax o’connori in the Yarlung Tsangpo River, Tibet. Environ. Biol. Fish., 90 (2): 159–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ma B S, Xu B, Wei K J, Deng L J, Gan W X, Zhu X Y, Yao Y H. 2017b. Length–weight and length–length relationships of four native fish species from the Yalong River, China. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 33 (4): 839–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Munro J D, Pauly D. 1983. A simple method for comparing the growth of fishes and invertebrates. Fishbyte, 1 (1): 5–6.Google Scholar
  23. Musick J A. 1999. Ecology and conservation of long–lived marine animals. In: Life in the Slow Lane: Ecology and Conservation of Long–lived Marine Animals: Proceedings of the Symposium Conservation of Long–Lived Marine Animals. California, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Ning X. 2009. Studies on characteristics of annual runoffin Anning River. Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, China. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  25. Qiu H, Chen Y F. 2009. Age and growth of Schizothorax waltoni in the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, China. Ichthyol. Res., 56 (3): 260–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ralston S. 1987. Mortality rates of snappers and groupers. In: Polovina J J, Ralston S eds. Tropical Snappers and Grouper: Biology and Fisheries Management. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. p.375–404.Google Scholar
  27. Ru H J, Zhang Y, Li Y F, Wang H M, Shen Z W, Wu X X, Li R, Sheng Q, Ni Z H. 2016. Community Composition and Status of Fish Resources in Anning River. J. Hydroecol., 37 (5): 68–74. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  28. Then A Y, Hoenig J M, Hall N G, Hewitt D A. 2014. Evaluating the predictive performance of empirical estimators of natural mortality rate using information on over 200 fish species. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 72 (1): 82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tsao W X, Wu X W. 1962. An investigation of the fish biology and fishery problems in Ganze–Apa region of western Szechwan Province. Acta Hydrobiol. Sin., (2): 79–111. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. von Bertalanffy L. 1938. A quantitative theory of organic growth (inquiries on growth laws II). Human Biol., 10 (2): 181–213.Google Scholar
  31. Wang Q. 2008. Investigation on the fisheries resources in the Yalongjiang River within Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture section. Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  32. Xian W. 2011. Analysis of ecological environment based on remote sensing and assessment of ecological vulnerability. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  33. Xu B, Nie Y Y, Wei K J, Deng L J, Gan W X, Ma B S, Zhu X Y, Xu J. 2017. Acute toxicity of four pesticides to Gymnocypris potanini firmispinatus. Freshw. Fish., 47 (2): 86–90, 106. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  34. Zhan B Y, Lou D C, Zhong J S. 1986. An assessment of the filefish population and rational exploitation of the resource. J. Fish. China, 10 (4): 409–418. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. Zhao L H, Wang S H, Zhao T Q. 1975. The age and growth of Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii (Kessler). In: Institute of Biology of Qinghai Province ed. The fish fauna of Qinghai Lake Region and Biology of Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii (Kessler). Science Press, Beijing. p.37–45. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  36. Zhou X J, Xie C X, Huo B, Duan Y J, Yang X, Ma B S. 2017. Age and growth of Schizothorax waltoni (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) in the Yarlung Tsangpo River, China. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 45 (1): 346–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baoshan Ma
    • 1
  • Yuanyuan Nie
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kaijin Wei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bin Xu
    • 1
  • Xiangyun Zhu
    • 1
  • Jin Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.Yangtze River Fisheries Research InstituteChinese Academy of Fishery SciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.Development Center for Animal Husbandry in Mountain Area in Miao Autonomous County of SongtaoTongrenChina

Personalised recommendations