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Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 165–180 | Cite as

Ferroan dolomites in Miocene sediments of the Xisha Islands and their genetic model

  • Hong Xu (许红)
  • Weiwei Zhang (张威威)
  • Kai Wei (魏凯)
  • Qingkun He (赫庆坤)
  • Yunshui Jiang (江云水)
  • Tingting Xu (许婷婷)
  • Xuejun Jiang (姜学钧)
  • Guijing Yan (闫桂京)
  • Hongying Song (宋红瑛)
  • Jianghai Wang (王江海)
Article

Abstract

Carbonate rocks are important reservoirs for global petroleum exploration. The largest oilfield in the South China Sea, Liuhua 11-1, is distributed in the massive carbonate reef area of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Mouth Basin. Previous studies showed that one 802.17-m-long core from well Xichen-1 in the South China Sea mainly consisted of white and light gray-white organic reefs. Recently, a Miocene whole core (161.9 m long) of well Xiyong-2, near well Xichen-1, was found to contain six layers of yellowish brown, light yellowish gray, iron black, or light yellowish gray-white organic reefs. Scanning electron microscope images of these layers reveal a typical ferroan dolomite rich in Fe (up to 29%), with the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, W, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co. Systematic X-ray powder diffraction analysis yields a 1.9–6.1 match in phase ratio with ankerite, 5.4–26.9 with dolomite, and zero with calcite, which indicate that the samples can be classified as ferroan dolomite. The iron and heavy metals are inferred to be originated from multiple volcanic eruptions of Gaojianshi Island in the Dongdao Atoll during the middle-late Miocene. These elements were dissolved in seawater, likely as a sol, and carried to Yongxing Island in the Xuande Atoll by sea currents and tides enhanced by prevailing winds, and deposited as a part of the sedimentation process in the study area. The ferroan dolomite has Sr content of (125–285)×10-6, which is lower than the accepted Sr boundary value of dolomite. This finding suggests that dolomitization occurred during large-scale global glacial regression in the late Miocene. The isolated Xisha carbonate platform, exposed to air, underwent freshwater leaching and dolomitization induced by mixed water, and caused the extensive Fe-Mg exchange along the organic reef profile to form ankerite and ferroan dolomite. These results may help to understand paleoceanographic environmental changes in the South China Sea during the Miocene.

Keywords

ferroan dolomite X-ray powder diffraction sedimentation mechanism Miocene Xisha Islands 

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Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Xu (许红)
    • 1
    • 2
  • Weiwei Zhang (张威威)
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kai Wei (魏凯)
    • 1
    • 3
  • Qingkun He (赫庆坤)
    • 4
  • Yunshui Jiang (江云水)
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tingting Xu (许婷婷)
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xuejun Jiang (姜学钧)
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guijing Yan (闫桂京)
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongying Song (宋红瑛)
    • 4
  • Jianghai Wang (王江海)
    • 5
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environment Geology, Qingdao Institute of Marine GeologyMinistry of Land and ResourcesQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine Mineral ResourcesQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  3. 3.China University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina
  4. 4.Shandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  5. 5.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering/South China Sea Bioresource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, School of Marine SciencesSun Yat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

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