Age, maturation and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas were studied based on random sampling of the Chinese jigging fishery off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) during 2008–2010. Estimated ages ranged from 144 to 633 days, confirming that the squid is a short-lived species with longevity no longer than 2 years. Occurrence of mature females and hatching in each month indicated that Humboldt squid spawned year-round. Back-calculated hatching dates for the samples were from January 22nd, 2008 to April 22nd, 2010 with a peak between January and March. Two size-based and two hatching date-based populations could be defined from mantle length (ML) at maturity and back-calculated hatching dates, respectively. Females matured at a larger size than males, and there was a significant difference in ML at maturity between the two hatching groups (P <0.05). The waters adjacent to 11°S off the Peruvian EEZ may be a potential spawning ground. This study shows the complexity of the population structure and large variability in key life history parameters in the Humboldt squid off the Peruvian EEZ, which should be considered in the assessment and management of this important resource.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Anderson C I H, Rodhouse P G. 2001. Life cycles, oceanography and variability: ommastrephid squid in variable oceanographic environments. Fish. Res., 54: 133–143.
Anon. 1999. Report of the Kaiyo Maru Cruise for study on the resource of two Ommastrephid squid, Dosidicus gigas and the Ommastrephes bartrami, in the Pacific Ocean, September 11–December 24, 1997. Fisheries Agency of Japan.
Argüelles J, Rodhouse P G, Villegas P, Castillo G. 2001. Age, growth and population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters. Fish. Res., 54: 51–61.
Argüelles J, Tafur R. 2010. New insights on the biology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in the Northern Humboldt Current System: size at maturity, somatic and reproductive investment. Fish. Res., 106: 185–192.
Argüelles J, Tafur R, Taipe A, Villegas P, Keyl F, Dominguez N, Salazar M. 2008. Size increment of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas mature females in Peruvian waters, 1989–2004. Prog. Oceanogr., 79: 308–312.
Arkhipikin A I. 2005. Statolith as ‘black boxes’(life recorders) in squid. Mar. Freshw. Res., 56: 573–583.
Arkhipkin A I, Jereb P, Ragonese S. 1999. Checks in the statolith microstructure of the short-finned squid, Illex coindetii from the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., 79: 1 091–1 096.
Arkhipkin A I, Jereb P, Ragonese S. 2000. Growth and maturation in two successive groups of the short-finned squid, Illex coindetii from the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean). ICES J. Mar. Sci., 57: 31–41.
Arkhipkin A I, Murzov S A. 1986. Age and growth patterns of Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae). In: Resources and Prospects of Utilization of Squid Stocks in the World Ocean. Moscow VNIRO Press. p.107–123.
Chen Y, Jackson D A, Harvey H H. 1992. A comparison of von Bertalanffy and Polynominal functions in modelling fish growth data. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 49: 1 228–1 235.
Chen X J, Li J H, Liu B L, Chen Y, Li G, Fang Z, Tian S Q. 2012. Age, growth and population structure of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, off the Costa Rica Dome. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., doi:10.1017/S0025315412000422.
Chen X J, Lu H J, Liu B L, Chen Y. 2011. Age, growth and population structure of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, based on statolith microstructure off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean waters. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., 91(1): 229–235.
Clarke R, Paliza O. 2000. The Humboldt current squid Dosidicus gigas (d’Orbigny, 1835). Rev. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr., 35: 1–38.
Dawe E G, Natsukari Y. 1991. Light microscopy. In: Jereb P, Ragonese S, Boletzky S V ed. Squid Age Determination Using Statoliths. Proceedings of the International Workshop held in the Istituto di Tecnologia della Pesca e del Pescato, Special Publication. p.83–95.
Ehrhardt N M, Jacquemin P S, García B F, González D G, López B J M, Ortíz C J, Solís N A. 1983. On the fishery and biology of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas in the Gulf of California, Mexico. In: Caddy J F ed. Advances in Assessment of World Cephalopods Resources. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 231. p.306–340.
Ibáñez C M, Cubillos L A. 2007. Seasonal variation in the length structure and reproductive condition of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (d’Orbigny, 1835) off central-south Chile. Sci. Mar., 71(1): 123–128.
Jackson G D. 1994. Application and future potential of statolith increment analysis in squids and sepioids. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 51: 2 612–2 625.
Keyl F, Argüelles J, Mariátegui L, Tafur R, Wolff M, Yamashiro C. 2008. A hypothesis on range expansion and spatiotemporal shifts in size-at-maturity of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. CalCOFI Rep. 49: 119–128.
Keyl F, Argüelles J, Tafur R. 2011. Interannual variability in size structure, age, and growth of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) assessed by modal progression analysis. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 68(3): 507–518.
Koronkiewicz A. 1988. Biological characteristics of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) caught in open waters of the eastern central Pacific from October to December 1986. ICES CM., K: 42.
Li S L, Liu B L, Chen X J, Ma J, Cao J, Zhang G W. 2011. Reproduction biology of neon flying squid (Ommasrephes b artramii) in Northwest Pacific Ocean. Oceanol. Limol. Sin., 42(2): 179–185.
Lipinski M R, Underhill L G. 1995. Sexual maturation in squid: quantum or continuum. South Afr. J. Mar. Sci., 15: 207–223.
Liu B L, Chen X J, Chen Y, Lu H J, Qian W G. 2011. Trace elements in the statoliths of jumbo flying squid off the Exclusive Economic Zones of Chile and Peru. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 429: 93–101.
Liu B L, Chen X J, Lu H J, Chen Y, Qian W G. 2010. Fishery biology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas off Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean waters. Sci. Mar., 74: 687–695.
Liu B L, Chen X J, Tian S Q, Qian W G. 2008. Sex maturity of Illex argentinus in the high sea waters of southwest Atlantic. J. Shanghai. Fish. Univ., 17(6): 721–725.
Markaida U. 2006. Population structure and reproductive biology of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas from the Gulf of California after the 1997–1998 El Niño event. Fish. Res., 79: 28–37.
Markaida U, Sosa-Nishizaki O. 2001. Reproductive biology of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in the gulf of California, 1995–1997. Fish. Res., 54: 63–82.
Markaida U, Quiñónez-Velázquez C, Sosa-Nishizaki O. 2004. Age, growth and maturation of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Fish. Res., 66: 31–47.
Masuda S, Yokawa K, Yatsu A, Kawahara S. 1998. Growth and population structure of Dosidicus gigas in the southeastern Pacific Ocean. p.107–118. In: Okutani T ed. Contributed Papers to International Symposium on Large Pelagic Squids, Tokyo, July 18-19, 1996. JAMARC. 269p.
Mejía-Rebollo A, Quiñónez-Velázquez C, Salinas-Zavala C A. Markaida U. 2008. Age, growth and maturity of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas d’Orbigny, 1835) off the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula. CalCOFI Rep., 49: 256–262.
Morales-Bojórquez E, Cisneros-Mata M A, Nevárez-Martínez M O, Hernández-Herrera A. 2001. Review of stock assessment and fishery biology of Dosidicus gigas in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Fish. Res., 54: 83–84.
Nakamura Y, Sakurai Y. 1991. Validation of daily growth increments in statoliths of Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 57: 2007–2011.
Nevárez-Martínez M O, Hernández-Herrera A, Morales-Bojórquez E, Balmori-Ramírez A, Cisneros-Mata M A, Morales-Azpeitia R. 2000. Biomass and distribution of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas; d’Orbigny, 1835) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Fish. Res., 49: 129–140.
Nesis K N. 1970. Biology of the Peru-Chilean giant squid, Dosidicus gigas. Okeanology, 10: 140–152.
Nigmatullin Ch M, Markaida U. 2009. Oocyte development, fecundity and spawning strategy of large sized jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Oegopsida: Ommastrephinae). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., 89: 789–801.
Nigmatullin Ch M, Nesis K N, Arkhipkin A I. 2001. A review of the biology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Fish. Res., 54: 9–19.
Rocha F, Vega M. 2003. Overview of cephalopod fisheries in Chilean waters. Fish. Res., 60: 151–159.
Rodhouse P G. 2008. Large-scale range expansion and variability in Ommastrephid squid populations: a review of environmental links. CalCOFI Rep., 49: 83–89.
Rubio J, Salazar C. 1992. Prospección pesquera del calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) a bordo del buque Japonés Shinko Maru #2. Inf. Inst. Mar. del Perú., 103: 3–32.
Staaf D J, Camarillo-Coop S, Haddock S H D, Nyack, Al C, Payne J, Salinas-Zavala C A, Seibel B A, Trueblood L, Widmer C, Gilly W F. 2008. Natural egg mass deposition by the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Gulf of California and characteristics of hatchlings and paralarvae. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K., 88(4): 759–779.
Staaf D J, Ruiz-Cooley R I, Elliger C, Lebaric Z, Campos B, Markaida U, Gilly W F. 2010. Ommastrephid squids Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis and Dosidicus gigas in the eastern Pacific show convergent biogeographic breaks but contrasting population structures. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 418: 165–178.
Tafur R, Keyl F, Argüelles J. 2010. Reproductive biology of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) as related to size and environmental variability in the northern Humboldt Current System. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 400: 127–141.
Tafur R, Rabí M. 1997. Reproduction of the jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas (d’Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) off Peruvian coast. Sci. Mar., 61(Supl.2): 33–37.
Tafur R, Villegas P, Rabí M, Yamashiro C. 2001. Dynamics of maturation, seasonality of reproduction and spawning grounds of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) in Peruvian waters. Fish. Res., 54: 33–50.
Taipe A, Yamashiro C, Mariategui L, Rojas P, Roque C. 2001. Distribution and concentration of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) off the Peruvian coast between 1991 and 1999. Fish. Res., 54: 21–32.
Uozumi Y, Ohara H. 1993. Age and growth of Nototodarus sloanii (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) based on daily increment counts in statoliths. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 59(9): 1 469–1 477.
Waluda C M, Yamashiro C, Rodhouse P G. 2006. Influence of the ENSO cycle on the light-fishery for Dosidicus gigas in the Peru Current: an analysis of remotely sensed data. Fish. Res., 79: 56–63.
Yatsu A, Midorikawa S, Shimada T, Uozumi Y. 1997. Age and growth of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, in the North Pacific Ocean. Fish. Res., 29: 257–270.
Ye X C, Chen X J. 2007. Study of mantle length composition and sex maturity of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) in fishing ground off Peru. J. Shanghai Fish. Univ., 16: 347–350.
Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41276156), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (No. 2012AA092303), the Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (No. 13YZ091), and Shanghai Leading Academic Disciplin Project
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Liu, B., Chen, X., Chen, Y. et al. Age, maturation, and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones. Chin. J. Ocean. Limnol. 31, 81–91 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00343-013-2036-z
- Dosidicus gigas
- off Peruvian EEZ
- population structure