Preliminary comparison of trace metals in coastal aerosols between Qingdao and Liverpool

  • Changling Liu (刘昌岭)Email author
  • Jing Zhang (张经)
  • Roy Chester


Aerosol samples were collected at two coastal suburban stations, Qingdao (China) in 1995–1996 and Liverpool (U.K.) in 1995, respectively. The samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of trace metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, V, and Cd) as well as Al, Fe and Mn. Data were examined to understand the difference of trace metals in aerosols between coastal zones downwind the developing area (near the Yellow Sea) and developed region (near the Irish Sea). The results show that most elements at Qingdao have levels 4–5 times higher than those at Liverpool, particularly for the crust-dominated elements (e.g. Al, Fe and Mn). Moreover, the aerosol composition at Qingdao is higher in spring than in summer, underlying the influence of westerlies and local emissions in combination, whereas seasonal change of aerosol composition is not significant at Liverpool. The enrichment factors for the crustal source elements (EF crust) at Liverpool are much higher than those at Qingdao. The contributions from the pollutant source (R p) for some trace metals like Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd are >90% at Qingdao and Liverpool, suggesting overwhelming anthropogenic contributions to these metals. The contributions from crustal source (R c) for trace metals tend to increase with higher aerosol levels and Al concentration at Qingdao, indicating a good correlation between the crust-dominated component and the air mass. At Liverpool, the R c values for trace metals are positively correlated with Al concentrations instead of with aerosol mass, suggesting that Al in aerosols represents the crustal component even though the aerosols come from different sources.


aerosols trace metals Qingdao the Yellow Sea coast Liverpool the Irish Sea coast 


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Copyright information

© Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Changling Liu (刘昌岭)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jing Zhang (张经)
    • 2
  • Roy Chester
    • 3
  1. 1.Qingdao Institute of Marine GeologyQingdaoChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal ResearchEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Oceanography Laboratories, Department of Earth Sciencethe University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

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