The process of sequential casting of steel, i.e. the procedure that implies a continuous change in the composition of the steel in the casting process of different steel grades, can be easily modelled assuming a perfect and instantaneous mix of the materials in the tundish. However, experimental evidence based on the measure of the local composition of steel billets obtained through this process suggests that the mixing of different steel grades in the tundish cannot be considered either perfect or instantaneous. An improved stochastic model, taking into account these effects, is presented and validated against the experimental results obtained using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique, assisted by an artificial neural network. In spite of the simplicity of the model proposed, the agreement between its predictions and the experimental results is remarkable.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
J. Campbell, Complete casting handbook: metal casting processes, metallurgy, techniques and design (Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2011)
R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Mönch, L. Peter, V. Sturm, Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 56, 637 (2001)
G. Lorenzetti, S. Legnaioli, E. Grifoni, S. Pagnotta, V. Palleschi, Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 112, 1–5 (2015)
T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, L.M. Cabalín, J.J. Laserna, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31, 2242 (2016)
L.M. Cabalín, T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, D. Mier, J.J. Laserna, Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 146, 93 (2018)
Y. Sahai, T. Emi, ISIJ Int. 36, 667 (1996)
B.G. Thomas, L. Zhang, ISIJ Int. 41, 1181 (2001)
M.R. Aboutalebi, M. Hasan, R.I.L. Guthrie, Metall. Mater. Trans. B 26, 731 (1995)
L. Tang, J. Liu, A. Rong, Z. Yang, Eur. J. Oper. Res. 120, 423 (2000)
D. Mier Vasallo, J. Ciriza Corcuera, J.J. Laraudogoitia Elortegui, Patent n. ES2445466 (2004)
M. Warzecha, T. Merder, H. Pfeifer, J. Pieprzyca, Steel Res. Int. 81, 987 (2010)
A. Bertolini, G. Carelli, F. Francesconi, M. Francesconi, L. Marchesini, P. Marsili, F. Sorrentino, G. Cristoforetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, L. Pardini, A. Salvetti, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385, 240–247 (2006)
E. D’Andrea, S. Pagnotta, E. Grifoni, G. Lorenzetti, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, B. Lazzerini, Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 99, 52–58 (2014)
J.-M. Böhlen, P. Charpié, Steel Times Int. 30, 26 (2006)
The authors acknowledge the fruitful discussions with Dr. Arne Bengtson, Swerim AB, Sweden, during the preparation of this work. The research reported in this paper was partially funded by the European Commission through the LACOMORE (Laser-based continuous monitoring and resolution of steel grades in sequence casting machines) project in the framework of the RFCS Research Fund for Coal and Steel (Grant no. RFSR‐CT‐2013‐00034).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Mier, D., Nazim Jalali, P., Ramirez Lopez, P. et al. A stochastic model of the process of sequence casting of steel, taking into account imperfect mixing. Appl. Phys. B 125, 65 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-019-7175-2