Skip to main content

Characterization and comparison between two coupling concepts of four-wavelength monolithic DBR ridge waveguide diode laser at 970 nm


Compact laser sources emitting at multiple wavelengths from a single aperture are interesting in a multiple of applications. In this work, we characterize and compare two concepts of four-arm monolithic distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) ridge waveguide (RW) diode lasers emitting at four different wavelengths around 970 nm. The first concept has a single intersection point, where the four arms are joined before being emitted from the output aperture. The second concept has two intersection points: the first where the inner two arms are combined and a second where those are joined by the outer two arms. In the first case, the inner and outer arms show difference in performance, in particular the outer arms show worse opto-electrical and spatial parameters compared to the inner arms. In the second concept, similar performance is observed from all four arms, with smaller deviations between the inner and outer arms in the mentioned parameters. This study suggests that a serial combination of pairs of bends is preferable in this kind of multi-wavelength laser sources.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


  1. S. Yamashita, T. Baba, K. Kashiwagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 12R (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. X. Feng, C. Lu, H.Y. Tam, P.K.A. Wai, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 17 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  3. J.T.C. Liu, J.B. Jeffries, R.K. Hanson, Appl. Phys. B 78, 3–4 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Seki, M. Shikada, A. Ueki, T. Yanase, T. Miki, Electron. Lett. 13, 22 (1977)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. C. De Luca, M. Mazilu, A. Riches, C.S. Herrington, K. Dholakia, Anal. Chem. 82, 2 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. O. Brox, J. Fricke, A. Klehr, A. Maaßdorf, M. Matalla, H. Wenzel, G. Erbert, Electron. Lett. 51, 17 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. T.Y. Fan, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 3 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. B. Sumpf, J. Kabitzke, J. Fricke, P. Ressel, A. Müller, M. Maiwald, G. Tränkle, Opt. Lett. 41, 16 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. M. Maeda, T. Hirata, M. Suehiro, M. Hihara, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hosomatsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2B (1992)

    Google Scholar 

  10. R.K. Price, V.B. Verma, K.E. Tobin, V.C. Elarde, J.J. Coleman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 20 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. M. Maiwald, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, J. Pohl, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, G. Tränkle, Laser Photonics Rev 7:4 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. J.O. Gwaro, C. Brenner, B. Sumpf, A. Klehr, J. Fricke, M.R. Hofmann, IET Optoelectron. 11, 2 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. H. Masahiro Uemukai, A. Ishida, T. Ito, H. Suhara, A. Kitajima, H. Watanabe, Kan, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2R (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  14. M. Tawfieq, A. Müller, J. Fricke, P.D. Casa, P. Ressel, D. Feise, B. Sumpf, G. Tränkle, Opt. Lett. 42, 20 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. P.L. Liu, B.J. Li, P.J. Cressman, J.R. Debesis, S. Stoller, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 8 (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  16. R.B. Swint, T.S. Yeoh, V.C. Elarde, J.J. Coleman, M.S. Zediker, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16:1 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. P. Ressel, G. Erbert, U. Zeimer, K. Hausler, G. Beister, B. Sumpf, A. Klehr, G. Trankle, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 5 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work has been carried out under the Mid-TECH project funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement no. 642661. The authors also gratefully acknowledge P. Johne, S. Kienast, A. Traut and M. Hampe for the laser mounting and bonding.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mahmoud Tawfieq.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tawfieq, M., Kabitzke, J., Fricke, J. et al. Characterization and comparison between two coupling concepts of four-wavelength monolithic DBR ridge waveguide diode laser at 970 nm. Appl. Phys. B 125, 50 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: