X-ray emission from a liquid curtain jet when irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses


Laser-based sources of ionizing radiation have attracted considerable attention in the last years for their broad potential applications. However, the stability and robustness of such sources are still issues that need to be addressed. Aiming to solve such problems, we propose a source that uses a liquid jet—rather than a solid—as a target for the production of X-rays. Liquid jets offer always a clean surface for every laser shot which represent a clear advantage over solids. In this work, we present an experimental characterization of the X-ray emission of such targets, and study the efficiency of the process when two temporally delayed pulses are used. According to the obtained results, the X-ray yield is comparable with commonly used targets.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  1. 1.

    H. Daido, M. Nishiuchi, A.S. Pirozhkov, Prog. Rep. Phys. 75, 056401 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    A. Macchi, M. Borghesi, M. Passoni, Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 751 (2013)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    B.B. Zhang, S.S. Sun, D.R. Sun, Y. Tao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 096110 (2014)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    K.A. Ivanov, D.S. Uryupina, R.V. Volkov, A.P. Shkurinov, I.A. Ozheredov, A.A. Paskhalov, N.V. Eremin, A.B. Saveléva, Nuc. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. A 653, 5861 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L.M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C.C. Chamberlain, A. Krol, Appl. Phys. B 83(1), 81–85 (2006)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    H. Witte, M. Silies, T. Haarlammert, J. Hüve, J. Kutzner, H. Zacharias, Appl. Phys. B 90, 11–14 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    M. Li, K. Huang, L. Chen, W. Yan, M. Tao, J. Zhao, Y. Ma, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Radiat. Phys. Chem. (2016)

  8. 8.

    F. Valle Brozas, A.V. Carpentier, C. Salgado, J.I. Apinaniz, M. Rico, M.Sánchez Albaneda, J.M. Álvarez, A. Peralta Conde, L. Roso, Rev. Esp. Fis. 29(3), 17–21 (2015)

  9. 9.

    F. Valle Brozas, A. Crego, L. Roso, A. Peralta Conde, Appl. Phys. B 122, 220 (2016)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    V. Malka, J. Faure, Y.A. Gauduel, Rev. Mutat. Res. 704(13), 142151 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Y. Gauduel, S. Fritzler, A. Hallou, Y. Glinec, V. Malka, SPIE 5463, 86–96 (2004)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    V. Malka, J. Faure, Y. Gauduel, E. Lefebvre, A. Rousse, K.T. Phuoc, Nat. Phys. 4, 447453 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    A. Giulietti, M.G. Andreassi, C. Greco, SPIE Proceedings 80791J, (2011)

  14. 14.

    R. Meesat, H. Belmouaddine, J.F. Allard, C. Tanguay-Renaud, R. Lemay, T. Brastaviceanu, L. Tremblay, B. Paquette, J.R. Wagner, J.-P. Jay-Gerin, M. Lepage, M.A. Huels, D. Houdea, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 38 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    O. Rigaud, N.O. Fortunel, P. Vaigot, E. Cadio, M.T. Martin, O. Lundh, J. Faure, C. Rechatin, V. Malka, Y.A. Gauduel, Cell Death Dis. 1, e73 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    C. Tillman, G. Grafstrom, A.C. Jonsson, B.A. Jonsson, I. Mercer, S. Mattsson, S.E. Strand, S. Svanberg, Radiology 213, 860–865 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    K. Zeil, M. Baumann, E. Beyreuther, T. Burris-Mog, T.E. Cowan, W. Enghardt, L. Karsch, S.D. Kraft, L. Laschinsky, J. Metzkes, D. Naumburger, M. Oppelt, C. Richter, R. Sauerbrey, M. Schürer, U. Schramm, J. Pawelke, Appl. Phys. B 110, 4 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    S.D. Kraft, C. Richter, K. Zeil, M. Baumann, E. Beyreuther, S. Bock, M. Bussmann, T.E. Cowan, Y. Dammene, W. Enghardt, U. Heibig, L. Karsch, T. Kluge, L. Laschinsky, E. Lessmann, J. Metzkes, D. Naumburger, R. Sauerbrey, M. Schurer, M. Sobiella, J. Woithe, U. Schramm, J. Pawelke, New J. Phys. 12, 085003 (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    J. Nguyen, Y. Ma, T. Luo, R.G. Bristow, D.A. Jaffray, Q.-B. Lu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11778 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    X. Kong, S.K. Mohanty, J. Stephens, J.T. Heale, V. Gomez-Godinez, L.Z. Shi, J.S. Kim, K. Yokomori, M.W. Berns, Nucleic Acids Res 37, 9 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    A. Yogo, T. Maeda, T. Hori, H. Sakaki, K. Ogura, M. Nishiuchi, A. Sagisaka, H. Kiriyama, H. Okada, S. Kanazawa, T. Shimomura, Y. Nakai, M. Tanoue, F. Sasao, P.R. Bolton, M. Murakami, T. Nomura, S. Kawanishi, K. Kondo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 053701 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    L. Miaja-Avila, G.C. OŃeil, J. Uhlig, C.L. Cromer, M.L. Dowell, R. Jimenez, A.S. Hoover, K.L. Silverman, J.N. Ullom, Struct. Dyn. 2, 024301 (2015)

  23. 23.

    G. Korn, A. Thoss, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, M. Richardson, T. Elsaesser, M. Faubel, Opt. Lett. 27, 866 (2002)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    N. Zhavoronkov, Y. Gritsai, G. Korn, T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. B 79, 663–667 (2004)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    R.J. Tompkins, I.P. Mercer, M. Fettweis, C.J. Barnett, D.R. Klug, L.G. Porter, I. Clark, S. Jackson, P. Matousek, A.W. Parker, M. Towrie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3113 (1998)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    D. Papp, R. Polanek, Z. Lecz, L. Volpe, A. Peralta Conde, A.A. Andreev, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 10 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    S.L. Chin, S.A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V.P. Kandidov, O.G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    NIST. X-ray Mass attenuation coefficients. https://www.nist.gov/pml/x-ray-mass-attenuation-coefficients. Accessed 11 Apr 2017

  29. 29.

    N. Zhavoronkov, Y. Gritsai, M. Bargheer, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 244107 (2005)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Y. Jiang, T. Lee, C.G. Rose-Petruck, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 229237 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    T. Guo, C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, F. Raksi, J.A. Squier, B.C. Walker, K.R. Wilsom, C.P.J. Barty, SPIE 3157, 84 (1997)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Y. Jiang, T. Lee, W. Li, G. Ketwaroo, G. Rose-Petruck, Opt. Lett. 27, 963 (2002)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    F.M. Khan, The physics of radiation therapy (Lippicott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2003)

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    P. Gibbon, Short pulse laser interaction with matter (Imperial College Press, London, 2007)

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 (1987)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    A.A. Andreev, J. Limpouch, A.N. Semakhin, Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci. 58, 10561063 (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    D.W. Forslund, J.M. Kindel, K. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 284288 (1977)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    J.F. Pelletier, M. Chaker, J.C. Kieffer, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5980 (1997)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    R. Lokasani, G. Arai, Y. Kondo, H. Hara, T.-H. Dinh, T. Ejima, T. Hatano, W. Jiang, T. Makimura, B. Li, P. Dunne, G. O’Sullivan, T. Higashiguchi, J. Limpouch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 19 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    R. Fazeli, M.H. Mahdieh, Phys. Plasmas 22, 11 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    A. Andreev, J. Limpouch, A.B. Iskakov, H. Nakano, Phys. Rev. E 65, 026403 (2002)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    K. Hatanaka, H. Ono, H. Fukumura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 0641013 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    P. Zhu, Z. Zhang, L. Chen, J. Zheng, R. Li, W. Wang, J. Li, X. Wang, J. Cao, D. Qian, Z. Sheng, J. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211501 (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    U. Teubner, G. Kühnle, F.P. Schäfer, Appl. Phys. B 54, 493 (1992)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    J.R. Freeman, S.S. Harilal, A. Hassanein, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083303 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    S. Fujioka, M. Shimomura, Y. Shimada, S. Maeda, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Nakai, T. Aota, H. Nishimura, N. Ozaki, A. Sunahara, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241502 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors thank J.M. Álvarez and S. Malko for fruitful and stimulating discussions during the development of this manuscript. This work has been possible by the support from Ministerio de Educación Cultura y Deporte (F. Valle Brozas studentship FPU AP2012-3451) and Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad of Spain (FURIAM project FIS2013-47741-R, PALMA project FIS2016-81056-R).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to F. Valle Brozas.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Valle Brozas, F., Papp, D., Escudero, L.M. et al. X-ray emission from a liquid curtain jet when irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. Appl. Phys. B 123, 190 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-017-6763-2

Download citation