Nanoantenna-controlled radiation pattern of the third-harmonic emission


We present the third-harmonic emission pattern of single and multiple gold nanoantennas excited by few-cycle infrared laser pulses. The angular distribution of the nonlinear emission is measured by back focal plane imaging with a high-numerical-aperture objective lens. The third-harmonic emission of a single-rod antenna has a dipole-like radiation pattern modified at the air–glass interface. Simultaneous excitation of multiple antennas under the same laser focus results in interferences of the far-field third-harmonic radiation, which can be well explained using a dipole model.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    L. Novotny, N. van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    P. Biagioni, J.S. Huang, B. Hecht, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    M.R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. B 68, 115433 (2003)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J.-S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, G. Cerullo, Nano Lett. 12, 2941 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    M. Celebrano, X. Wu, M. Baselli, S. Großmann, P. Biagioni, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, B. Hecht, L. Duò, F. Ciccacci, M. Finazzi, Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 412 (2015)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 257404 (2009)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, Nano Lett. 12, 992 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    M. Hentschel, T. Utikal, H. Giessen, M. Lippitz, Nano Lett. 12, 3778 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, C. Ropers, Nat. Phys. 9, 304 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    M.A. Lieb, J.M. Zavislan, L. Novotny, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1210 (2004)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    R. Wagner, L. Heerklotz, N. Kortenbruck, F. Cichos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 081904 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    A.G. Curto, T.H. Taminiau, G. Volpe, M.P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N.F. van Hulst, Nat. Commun. 4, 1750 (2013)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    S.-U. Hwang, Y.-G. Lee, Opt. Express 16, 21170 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    P.B. Johnson, R.W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    R.A. Farrer, F.L. Butterfield, V.W. Chen, J.T. Fourkas, Nano Lett. 5, 1139 (2005)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    V. Knittel, M.P. Fischer, T. de Roo, S. Mecking, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Brida, ACS Nano 9, 894 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    M. Lippitz, M.A. van Dijk, M. Orrit, Nano Lett. 5, 799 (2005)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    E.S. Barnard, J.S. White, A. Chandran, M.L. Brongersma, Opt. Express 16, 16529 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R.T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    E.R. Encina, E.A. Coronado, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 9586 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G.C. des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.C. Weeber, A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. B 78, 155407 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    W. Lukosz, R.E. Kunz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1607 (1977)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    W. Lukosz, R.E. Kunz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1615 (1977)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1495 (1979)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    L. Novotny, B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012)

    Book  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank Harald Fuchs for granting access to the evaporator. We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP 1391).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Torsten Stiehm.

Additional information

This article is part of the topical collection “Ultrafast Nanooptics” guest edited by Martin Aeschlimann and Walter Pfeiffer.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Stiehm, T., Kern, J., Jürgensen, M. et al. Nanoantenna-controlled radiation pattern of the third-harmonic emission. Appl. Phys. B 122, 119 (2016).

Download citation


  • Radiation Pattern
  • Fuse Silica Substrate
  • Glass Interface
  • Measured Radiation Pattern
  • Focal Plane Imaging