Applied Physics B

, Volume 121, Issue 1, pp 7–17 | Cite as

Frequency modulation characteristics for interband cascade lasers emitting at 3 μm

  • Jinyi Li
  • Zhenhui Du
  • Ying An


The frequency modulation (FM) efficiency and frequency modulation/intensity modulation (FM/IM) phase shift of mid-infrared interband cascade lasers (ICLs) are studied experimentally. The modulation parameters of 2997 and 3266 nm ICLs are characterized using tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS) with H2O absorption lines located at 2998.8 and 3263.3 nm, respectively. The FM efficiency is determined by the distance between two zero crossings of the measured wavelength modulation spectrum with the second-harmonic (WMS-2f) detection signal, whereas the FM/IM phase shift is extracted by measuring the time delay between the laser intensity and frequency response, using the H2O absorption lines as markers. The results show that the FM efficiency is more than four times larger than that of conventional near-infrared distributed feedback lasers and that it decreases monotonically with increasing modulation frequency. The response of the FM/IM phase shift shows three distinct regions in its response to the increasing modulation frequency. The FM characteristics of ICLs are different from those of both conventional diode lasers and quantum cascade lasers because of the different semiconducting materials and working principles involved. This study can help to optimize wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS)-based sensor performance and improve simulation models for WMS.


Phase Shift Frequency Modulation Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Interband Cascade Laser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the Special-funded Program on National Key Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development (2012YQ06016501) and the key technologies R & D program of Tianjin (13ZCZDSF14600), as well as the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (F2013209331).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Lab of Precision Measuring Technology and InstrumentsTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.School of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  3. 3.College of Information EngineeringNorth China University of Science and TechnologyTangshanChina

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