Applied Physics B

, Volume 117, Issue 3, pp 979–986 | Cite as

High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link

  • D. Calonico
  • E. K. Bertacco
  • C. E. Calosso
  • C. Clivati
  • G. A. Costanzo
  • M. Frittelli
  • A. Godone
  • A. Mura
  • N. Poli
  • D. V. Sutyrin
  • G. Tino
  • M. E. Zucco
  • F. Levi


To significantly improve the frequency references used in radio-astronomy and the precision measurements in atomic physics, we provide frequency dissemination through a 642-km coherent optical fiber link. On the frequency transfer, we obtained a frequency instability of \(3\times 10^{-19}\) at 1,000 s in terms of Allan deviation on a 5-mHz measurement bandwidth, and an accuracy of \(5\times 10^{-19}\). The ultimate link performance has been evaluated by doubling the link to 1,284 km, demonstrating a new characterization technique based on the double round trip on a single fiber. This method is an alternative to previously demonstrated techniques for link characterization. In particular, the use of a single fiber may be beneficial to long hauls realizations in view of a continental fiber network for frequency and time metrology, as it avoids the doubling of the amplifiers, with a subsequent reduction in costs and maintenance. A detailed analysis of the results is presented, regarding the phase noise, the cycle-slips detection and removal and the instability evaluation. The observed noise power spectrum is seldom found in the literature; hence, the expression of the Allan deviation is theoretically derived and the results confirm the expectations.


Global Navigation Satellite System Phase Noise Very Long Baseline Interferometry Amplify Spontaneous Emission Optical Link 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Gesine Grosche and Paul-Eric Pottie for technical help, Giorgio Santarelli for useful discussions, and the GARR Consortium for technical help with the fibers. This work was supported by: the Italian Ministry of Research MIUR under the Progetti Premiali programme and the PRIN09-2009ZJJBLX project; the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) under SIB-02 NEAT-FT. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.


  1. 1.
    L.-S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, J.L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S.M.F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T.W. Hänsch, Th Udem, R. Holzwarth, H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, G. Santarelli, Opt. Express 20, 23518 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th Udem, K. Predehl, T.W. Hansch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    O. Lopez, A. Kanj, P. Pottie, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, G. Santarelli, Appl. Phys. B 110, 3 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Sliwczyski, P. Krehlik, A. Czubla, L. Buczek, M. Lipiski, Metrologia 50, 133 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Wang, C. Gao, W.L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J.W. Zhang, Y.Y. Feng, T.C. Li, L.J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012)ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Marra, R. Slavik, H.S. Margolis, S.N. Lea, P. Petropoulos, D.J. Richardson, P. Gill, Opt. Lett. 36, 511 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, S. Nagano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hachisu, T. Ido, Opt. Express 19, 16498 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.-C. Ebenhag, P.O. Hedekvist, P. Jarlemark, R. Emardson, K. Jaldehag, C. Rieck, P. Löthberg, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59, 1918 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F.-L. Hong, M. Musha, M. Takamoto, H. Inaba, S. Yanagimachi, A. Takamizawa, K. Watabe, T. Ikegami, M. Imae, Y. Fujii, M. Amemiya, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, H. Katori, Opt. Lett. 34, 692 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Vojtech, V. Smotlacha, P. Skoda, A. Kuna, M. Hula, S. Sima, in Proceedings of the SPIE 8516. Remote Sensing System Engineering IV, San Diego, CA, 2012, p. 85160HGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.A. Williams, W.C. Swann, N.R. Newbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, P. Uhrich, Metrologia 43, 109 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burea international des poids et measures, in Comptes rendus de la 23 e réunion de la Conférence générale des poids et mesures, 12–16 Nov 2007, BIPM, Sèvres, France, 2010, p. 431Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.W. Chou, D.B. Hume, T. Rosenband, D.J. Wineland, Science 329, 1630 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Müller, M. Soffel, S.A. Klioner, J. Geod. 82, 133 (2008)ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Cerretto, N. Guyennon, I. Sesia, P. Tavella, F. Gonzalez, J. Hahn, V. Fernandez, A. Mozo, in Proceedings of the European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 2008Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. He, B.J. Orr, K.G.H. Baldwin, M.J. Wouters, A.N. Luiten, G. Aben, R.B. Warrington, Opt. Express 21, 18754 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.F. Cliche, B. Shillue, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26, 19 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Kim, J.A. Cox, J. Chen, F.X. Kärtner, Nat. Photonics 2, 733 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Levi, R. Ambrosini, D. Calonico, C.E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G.A. Costanzo, P. De Natale, D. Mazzotti, M. Frittelli, G. Galzerano, A. Mura, D. Sutyrin, G.M. Tino, M.E. Zucco, N. Poli, in Proceedings of the Joint UFFC, EFTF and PFM Symposium, 2013, pp. 477–480Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Delisle, J. Conradi, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 749–757 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, Appl. Phys. B 97, 541 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Clivati, D. Calonico, C.E. Calosso, G.A. Costanzo, F. Levi, A. Mura, A. Godone, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control. 58, 2582 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Th Udem, J. Reichert, T.W. Hänsch, M. Kourogi, Opt. Lett. 23, 1387 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Kramer, W. Klische, in Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition, Seattle, WA, 2001, p. 144Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. Allan, in Proceedings of the IEEE 54, 1966, p. 221Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Godone, S. Micalizio, F. Levi, Metrologia 45, 313 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    B.J. Bloom, T.L. Nicholson, J.R. Williams, S.L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S.L. Bromley, J. Ye, Nature 506, 7175 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, H. Katori,
  34. 34.
    A. Bercy, S. Guellati-Khelifa, F. Stefani, G. Santarelli, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 31, 698 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S.W. Schediwy, D. Gozzard, K.G.H. Baldwin, B.J. Orr, R.B. Warrington, G. Aben, A.N. Luiten, Opt. Lett. 38, 2893 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. Grosche, Opt. Lett. 39, 2545 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    C.E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G.A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, A. Godone, Opt. Lett. 39, 11771180 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, N. Poli, Photonics Technol. Lett. 25, 1711 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Papoulis, in Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes. International Student Edition (McGraw Hill, Kogakusha, 1965), p. 347Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Calonico
    • 1
  • E. K. Bertacco
    • 1
  • C. E. Calosso
    • 1
  • C. Clivati
    • 1
  • G. A. Costanzo
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Frittelli
    • 1
  • A. Godone
    • 1
  • A. Mura
    • 1
  • N. Poli
    • 3
  • D. V. Sutyrin
    • 3
  • G. Tino
    • 3
  • M. E. Zucco
    • 1
  • F. Levi
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica INRIMTurinItaly
  2. 2.Politecnico di TorinoTurinItaly
  3. 3.Università di Firenze, LENS and INFNSesto FiorentinoItaly

Personalised recommendations