Applied Physics B

, Volume 110, Issue 2, pp 223–231 | Cite as

Using integrating spheres with wavelength modulation spectroscopy: effect of pathlength distribution on 2nd harmonic signals

  • J. HodgkinsonEmail author
  • D. Masiyano
  • R. P. Tatam


We have studied the effect on 2nd harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy of the use of integrating spheres as multipass gas cells. The gas lineshape becomes distorted at high concentrations, as a consequence of the exponential pathlength distribution of the sphere, introducing nonlinearity beyond that expected from the Beer–Lambert law. We have modelled this numerically for methane absorption at 1.651 μm, with gas concentrations in the range of 0–2.5 %vol in air. The results of this model compare well with experimental measurements. The nonlinearity for the 2fWMS measurements is larger than that for direct scan measurements; if this additional effect were not accounted for, the resulting error would be approximately 20 % of the reading at a concentration of 2.5 %vol methane.


Modulation Index Integrate Cavity Output Spectroscopy Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy Ringdown Time Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was carried out under an EPSRC research grant (GR/T04601/01) and an EPSRC Advanced Research Fellowship (GR/T04595/01—J. Hodgkinson).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Engineering Photonics, School of EngineeringCranfield UniversityBedfordshireUK
  2. 2.Two Trees Photonics Ltd.Milton KeynesUK

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