Applied Physics B

, Volume 109, Issue 3, pp 485–496 | Cite as

Chemical analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy

Article

Abstract

The chemical composition of surgical smoke, a gaseous by-product of some surgical devices—lasers, drills, vessel sealing devices—is of great interest due to the many toxic components that have been found to date. For the first time, surgical smoke samples collected during routine keyhole surgery were analyzed with infrared laser spectroscopy. Traces (ppm range) of methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide and sevoflurane were detected in the samples which consisted mostly of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Except for the anaesthetic sevoflurane, none of the compounds were present at dangerous concentrations. Negative effects on the health of operation room personnel can be excluded for many toxic compounds found in earlier studies, since their concentrations are below recommended exposure limits.

References

  1. 1.
    W. Barrett, S. Garber, Surg. Endosc. 17, 979 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Francke, O. Fleck, D.-L. Mihalache, W. Wöllmer, Proc. SPIE 2323, 423 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Hensman, D. Baty, R. Willis, A. Cuschieri, Surg. Endosc. 12, 1017 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Desinger, W. Wäsche, H. Albrecht, Proc. SPIE 2624, 234 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Wäsche, H. Albrecht, G.J. Mueller, Proc. SPIE 2323, 393 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Spleiss, L.W. Weber, Proc. SPIE 2923, 168 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Spleiss, L. Weber, T. Meier, B. Treffler, Proc. SPIE 2323, 409 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Albrecht, R. Hagemann, W. Wäsche, G. Wagner, G.J. Mueller, Proc. SPIE 2077, 310 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L.W. Weber, M. Spleiss, Proc. SPIE 2323, 464 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Albrecht, W. Wäsche, G.J. Mueller, Proc. SPIE 2323, 455 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Wäsche, H. Albrecht, Proc. SPIE 2624, 270 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.-J. Weigmann, J. Lademann, J. Liebetruth, Proc. SPIE 2077, 264 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H.-J. Weigmann, J. Lademann, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, Proc. SPIE 2923, 164 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Sagar, A. Meagher, S. Sobczak, B. Wolff, Br. J. Surg. 83, 1792 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.M. Rey, D. Schramm, D. Hahnloser, D. Marinov, M.W. Sigrist, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 075602 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Baggish, B. Poiesz, D. Joret, P. Williamson, A. Rebai, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 197 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Hallmo, O. Naess, Em. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 248, 425 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Calero, T. Brusis, Laryngo-Rhino-Otologie 82, 790 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.M. Garden, M.K. O’Banion, A.D. Bakus, C. Olson, Arch. Dermatol. 138, 1303 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Ziegler, C. Thomas, T. Meier, R. Muller, T. Fliedner, L. Weber, Lasers Surg. Med. 22, 37 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Jewett, P. Heinsohn, C. Bennett, A. Rosen, C. Neuilly, Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 53, 228 (1992) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Heinsohn, D. Jewett, Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 54, 446 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K.J. Weld, S. Dryer, C.D. Ames, K. Cho, C. Hogan, M. Lee, P. Biswas, J. Landman, J. Endourol. 21, 347 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.R. Moot, K.M. Ledingham, P.F. Wilson, S.T. Senthilmohan, D.R. Lewis, J. Roake, R. Allardyce, ANZ J. Surg. 77, 20 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Weston, R.N. Stephenson, P.W. Kutarski, N.J. Parr, Urology 74, 1152 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    O.S. Al Sahaf, I. Vega-Carrascal, F.O. Cunningham, J.P. McGrath, F.J. Bloomfield, Ir. J. Med. Sci. 176, 229 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y.J. Chung, S.K. Lee, S.H. Han, C. Zhao, M.K. Kim, S.C. Park, J.K. Park, Int. J. Urol. 17, 944 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Galbraith, S.A. Gross, D. Paustenbach, Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 40, 1 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. Lehman-McKeeman, Toxicol. Sci. 116, 361 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D.S. Bomse, A.C. Stanton, J.A. Silver, Appl. Opt. 31, 718 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Seiter, M.W. Sigrist, Appl. Opt. 38, 4691 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. Dyroff, D. Fuetterer, A. Zahn, Appl. Phys. B 98, 537 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Ciaffoni, R. Grilli, G. Hancock, A.J. Orr-Ewing, R. Peverall, G.A.D. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. B 94, 517 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Elia, C.D. Franco, P.M. Lugara, G. Scamarcio, Sensors 6, 1411 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. Romanini, M. Chenevier, S. Kassi, M. Schmidt, C. Valant, M. Ramonet, J. Lopez, H. Jost, Appl. Phys. B 83, 659 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Schilt, A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 95, 813 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    C. Wang, P. Sahay, Sensors 9, 8230 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, R. Curl, Appl. Phys. B 90, 165 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    F.K. Tittel, A.A. Kosterev, Appl. Phys. B 85, 171 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Fischer, M.W. Sigrist, Mid-IR difference frequency generation, in Solid-State Mid-infrared Laser Sources. Top. Appl. Phys., vol. 89 (Springer, Berlin, 2003), pp. 97–140 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Gianella, M.W. Sigrist, Appl. Opt. 50, A11 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Gianella, Analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy, Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zurich (2011) Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    R. Bartlome, M. Baer, M.W. Sigrist, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013110 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J.A. Barnes, A.R. Chi, L.S. Cutler, D.J. Healey, D.B. Leeson, T.E. McGunigal, J.A. Mullen, W.L. Smith, R.L. Sydnor, R.F.C. Vessot, G.M.R. Winkler, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-20, 105 (1971) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    J. Silver, Appl. Opt. 31, 707 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    C. Tang, J. Telle, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4503 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. Moses, C. Tang, Opt. Lett. 1, 115 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    D.E. Jennings, Appl. Opt. 19, 2695 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    H.A. Spaink, T.T. Lub, H.C. Smit, Anal. Chim. Acta 241, 83 (1990) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J.V. Auwera, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. Gianella, M.W. Sigrist, Appl. Spectrosc. 63, 338 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    S.W. Sharpe, T.J. Johnson, R.L. Sams, P.M. Chu, G.C. Rhoderick, P.A. Johnson, Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 1452 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    T. Katoh, K. Ikeda, Anesthesiology 66, 301 (1987) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. Brown, C. Canosamas, A. Par, J. Pierce, R. Wayne, Nature 341, 635 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    M. Gianella, M.W. Sigrist, Sensors 10, 2694 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    SUVA, Grenzwerte am Arbeitsplatz (SUVA, Lucerne, 2009) Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    E. Esper, T.E. Russell, B. Coy, B.E. Duke, M.H. Max, J.A. Coil, Surg. Endosc. 4, 333 (1994) Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    C. Byhahn, H.J. Wilke, K. Westphal, CNS Drugs 15, 197 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    K.H. Hoerauf, T. Wallner, O. Akça, R. Taslimi, D.I. Sessler, Anesth. Analg. 88, 925 (1999) Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    M. Imbriani, P. Zadra, S. Negri, A. Alessio, L. Maestri, S. Ghittori, Med. Lav. 92, 173 (2001) Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    NIOSH, Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Waste Anesthetic Gases and Vapors (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, 1977) pp. 77–140 Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    A. Accorsi, A. Barbieri, G.B. Raffi, F.S. Violante, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 74, 541 (2001) Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. Accorsi, S. Valenti, A. Barbieri, G.B. Raffi, F.S. Violante, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 76, 129 (2003) Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    C. Byhahn, K. Heller, V. Lischke, K. Westphal, World J. Surg. 25, 1109 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    A. Gentili, A. Accorsi, A. Pigna, V. Bachiocco, I. Domenichini, S. Baroncini, F.S. Violante, Eur. J. Anaesthesiol. 21, 638 (2004) Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    B. Gustorff, N. Lorenzl, L. Aram, C.G. Krenn, B.P. Jobst, K.H. Hoerauf, Anesth. Analg. 94, 1244 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J.E. Hall, K.A. Henderson, T.A. Oldham, S. Pugh, M. Harmer, Br. J. Anaesth. 79, 342 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    H. Heijbel, R. Bjurstöm, J.G. Jakobsson, Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 54, 1117 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    J. Hobbhahn, K. Hoerauf, G. Wiesner, K. Schrögendorfer, K. Taeger, Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 42, 864 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. Hobbhahn, G. Wiesner, K. Taeger, Anaesthesist 47 Suppl 1, S77 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    K. Hoerauf, W. Funk, M. Harth, J. Hobbhahn, Anaesthesia 52, 215 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    K.H. Hoerauf, C. Koller, K. Taeger, J. Hobbhahn, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 69, 134 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    K. Hoerauf, T. Hartmann, A. Zavrski, S. Adel, H. Burger, H. Koinig, M. Zimpfer, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 72, 174 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    K.H. Hoerauf, T. Hartmann, S. Acimovic, A. Kopp, G. Wiesner, B. Gustorff, H. Jellinek, P. Krafft, Br. J. Anaesth. 86, 124 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    N. Raj, K.A. Henderson, J.E. Hall, I.M. Aguilera, M. Harmer, A. Hutchings, B. Williams, Anaesthesia 58, 630 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    H. Rasmussen, S. Thorud, J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci. 46, 64 (2007) Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    G. Summer, P. Lirk, K. Hoerauf, U. Riccabona, F. Bodrogi, H. Raifer, M. Deibl, J. Rieder, W. Schobersberger, Anesth. Analg. 97, 1070 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    B. Tankó, C. Molnár, T. Budi, C. Peto, L. Novák, B. Fülesdi, Anesth. Analg. 109, 1187 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    R. Hollmann, C. Hort, E. Kammer, M. Nägele, M.W. Sigrist, C. Meuli-Simmen, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 114, 458 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J. Wu, D. Luttmann, T. Meininger, N. Soper, Surg. Endosc. 11, 1075 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Quantum Electronics, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing LabETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations