Skip to main content
Log in

Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis

  • Published:
Applied Physics B Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Quantum cascade (QC) lasers are virtually ideal mid-infrared sources for trace gas monitoring. They can be fabricated to operate at any of a very wide range of wavelengths from ∼ 3 μm to ∼ 24 μm. Seizing the opportunity presented by mid-infrared QC lasers, several groups world-wide are actively applying them to trace gas sensing. Real world applications include environmental monitoring, industrial process control and biomedical diagnostics. In our laboratory we have explored the use of several methods for carrying out absorption spectroscopy with these sources, which include multipass absorption spectroscopy, cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS), and quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. F.K. Tittel, D. Richter, A. Fried, In: Solid state mid-infrared laser sources, ed. by I.T. Sorokina, K.L. Vodopyanov (Springer, Berlin New York, 2003) Topics Appl. Phys., vol. 89, pp. 445–510

    Google Scholar 

  2. R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, Ann. Rep. Prog. Chem. C 98, 219 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  3. T. Yanagawa, H. Kanbara, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Suzuki, J. Yumoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161106 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  4. D. Richter, P. Weibring, Appl. Phys. B 82, 479 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. P. Weibring, D. Richter, A. Fried, J.G. Walega, C. Dyroff, Appl. Phys. B 85, 207 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  6. A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-38, 582 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. S.G. So, G. Wysocki, J.P. Frantz, F.K. Tittel, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1057 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. De Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. B 85, 223 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. S.C. Herndon, M.S. Zahniser, D.D. Nelson, J. Shorter, J.B. McManus, R. Jimenez, C. Warneke, J.A. de Gouw, J. Geophys. Res. Atmosph. 112, 1003 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  10. A. Lambrecht, T. Beyer, M. Braun, A. Peter, S. Hartwig, Techn. Mess. 71, 311 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. M.B. Pushkarsky, I.G. Dunayevskiy, M. Prasanna, A.G. Tsekoun, R. Go, C.K.N. Patel, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 103, 19630 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. W.T. Rawlins, J.M. Hensley, D.M. Sonnenfroh, D.B. Oakes, M.G. Allen, Appl. Opt. 44, 6635 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  13. M.D. Wojcik, M.C. Phillips, B.D. Cannon, M.S. Taubman, Appl. Phys. B 85, 307 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  14. D. Weidmann, A.A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R.F. Curl, M.P. Fraser, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 43, 3329 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  15. A.A. Kosterev, A.L. Malinovsky, F.K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, Appl. Opt. 40, 5522 (2001)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  16. Y.A. Bakhirkin, A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, D.A. Yarekha, L. Hvozdara, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, Appl. Phys. B 82, 149 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  17. A.A. Kosterev, Y.A. Bakhirkin, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 80, 133 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  18. G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, F.K. Tittel, R.Q. Yang, M.P. Fraser, Appl. Opt. 46, 8202 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  19. M.R. McCurdy, Y.A. Bakhirkin, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 85, 445 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, R. Kohler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho, Appl. Opt. 41, 573 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  21. A.A. Kosterev, Y.A. Bakhirkin, F.K. Tittel, S. Blaser, Y. Bonetti, L. Hvozdara, Appl. Phys. B 78, 673 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  22. http://www.ece.rice.edu/lasersci/detectio.html

  23. S. Blaser, D. Yarekha, L. Hvozdara, Y. Bonetti, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 41109 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, A.Y. Cho, Nature 415, 883 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  25. R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, E. Gini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  26. R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, E. Gini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  27. G. Wysocki, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J.M. Bulliard, J. Faist, Appl. Phys. B 81, 769 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  28. C. Peng, G. Luo, H.Q. Le, Appl. Opt. 42, 4877 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  29. G.C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A.H. Kung, A. Mohacsi, A. Miklos, P. Hess, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10179 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. M. Gomes da Silva, A. Miklos, A. Falkenroth, P. Hess, Appl. Phys. B 82, 329 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  31. A.A. Kosterev, Y.A. Bakhirkin, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  32. A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, D. Serebryakov, A. Malinovsky, A. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  33. A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 43, 6213 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  34. G. Wysocki, A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 85, 301 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  35. D. Weidmann, A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, N. Ryan, D. McDonald, Opt. Lett. 29, 1837 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  36. A.A. Kosterev, T.S. Mosely, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 85, 295 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  37. A.A. Kosterev, Y.A. Bakhirkin, F.K. Tittel, S. Blaser, Y. Bonetti, L. Hvozdara, Appl. Phys. B 78, 673 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  38. M. Horstjann, Y.A. Bakhirkin, A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  39. A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, T.S. Knittel, A. Cowie, J.D. Tate, Trace Humidity Sensor based on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Laser Appl. to Chem. Security and Environ. Analysis Conf., Incline Village, NV, February 5–9 (2006)

  40. G. Wysocki, A.A. Kosterev, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 80, 617 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  41. S. Wehe, M. Allen, X. Liu, J. Jeffries, R. Hanson, NO and CO absorption measurements with a MidIR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications, Proc. 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 6–9 January (2003), Reno, Nevada, AIAA 2003-588

  42. G.R. Price, K.K. Botros, G.M. Goldin, J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power 124, 276 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. C. Stroud, S. Madronich, E. Atlas, B. Ridley, F. Flocke, A. Weinheimer, B. Talbot, A. Fried, B. Wert, R. Shetter, B. Lefer, M. Coffey, B. Heikes, D. Blake, Atmosph. Environ. 37, 3351 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. P.E. Silkoff, M. Caramori, L. Tremblay, P. McClean, C. Chaparro, S. Kesten, M. Hutcheon, A.S. Slutsky, N. Zamel, S. Keshavjee, Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 157, 1822 (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  45. S.A. Kharitonov, P.J. Barnes, Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care 163, 1693 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  46. D.D. Nelson, J.H. Shorter, J.B. McManus, M.S. Zahniser, Appl. Phys. B 75, 343 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  47. B.A. Paldus, A.A. Kachanov, Can. J. Phys. 83, 975 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  48. Y.A. Bakhirkin, A.A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 43, 2257 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  49. J. Paul, L. Lapson, J. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 40, 4904 (2001)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  50. K. Namjou, C.B. Roller, T.E. Reich, J.D. Jeffers, G.L. McMillen, P.J. McCann, M.A. Camp, Appl. Phys. B 85, 427 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  51. TS/ERS Recommendations for Standardized Procedures for the Online and Offline Measurement of Exhaled Lower Respiratory Nitric Oxide and Nasal Nitric Oxide. Am J. Resp. Crit. Care 171, 912 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  52. T.H. Risby, S.F. Solga, Appl. Phys. B 85, 421 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  53. M. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, F.K. Tittel, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034034-1 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  54. M. McCurdy, Y. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, F. K Tittel, J. Breath Res. 1, 014001 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  55. D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, S.C. Herndon, J. Shorter, M.S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Mueller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, Opt. Lett. 21, 2012 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  56. L.I. Kleinman, P.H. Daum, D. Imre, Y.N. Lee, J.L. Nunnermacker, S.R. Springston, J. Weinstein-Lloyd, J. Rudolph, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1467 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  57. T.B. Ryerson, M. Trainer, W.M. Angevine, C.A. Brock, R.W. Dissly, F.C. Fehsenfeld, G.J. Frost, P.D. Goldan, J.S. Holloway, G. Hubler, R.O. Jakoubek, W.C. Kuster, J.A. Neuman, D.K. Nicks, D.D. Parrish, J.M. Roberts, D.T. Sueper, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4249 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. D.B. Oh, M.E. Paige, D.S. Bomse, Appl. Opt. 37, 2499 (1998)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  59. Y.Q. Li, K.L. Demerjian, M.S. Zahniser, D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, S.C. Herndon, J. Geophys. Res. 109, D16S08 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, J.H. Shorter, D.D. Nelson, J.B. McManus, M.S. Zahniser, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5738, 318 (2005)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  61. A. Fried, J.R. Drummond, B. Henry, J. Fox, Appl. Opt. 30, 1916 (1991)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  62. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Point Source Emission Inventory Database, provided by TCEQ Technical Analysis Division, Austin, TX (2006)

  63. A. Tsekoun, R. Go, M. Pushkarsky, M. Razeghi, C.K.N. Patel, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 103, 4831 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  64. A. Wittmann, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, S. Blaser, D. Hofstetter, E. Gini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141116 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  65. J. Faist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 253512 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  66. S. So, F. Koushanfar, A. Kosterev, F. Tittel, LaserSPECks: Laser SPECtroscopic trace gas sensor networks – sensor integration and applications, Proc. Info. Process. in Sensor Networks (IPSN–SPOTS), Cambridge, MA, April 24–28 (2007)

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to F. Tittel.

Additional information

PACS

42.62.Fi; 42.62.Be; 07.88.+y; 33.20.Ea

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kosterev, A., Wysocki, G., Bakhirkin, Y. et al. Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis. Appl. Phys. B 90, 165–176 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-007-2846-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-007-2846-9

Keywords

Navigation