Skip to main content
Log in

Energetics of Brownian motors: a review

  • Published:
Applied Physics A Aims and scope Submit manuscript


We review the literature on the energetics of Brownian motors, distinguishing between forced ratchets, chemical motors – driven out of equilibrium by differences of chemical potential, and thermal motors – driven by temperature differences. The discussion is focused on the definition of efficiency and the compatibility between the models and the laws of thermodynamics.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Additional information

Received: 13 November 2001 / Accepted: 10 January 2002 / Published online: 22 April 2002

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Parrondo, J., de Cisneros, B. Energetics of Brownian motors: a review . Appl Phys A 75, 179–191 (2002).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: