Skip to main content
Log in

Laser powder-bed fusion of biodegradable Fe–Mn alloy: melt-pool solidification

  • Published:
Applied Physics A Aims and scope Submit manuscript


As biodegradable materials, Fe–Mn alloys have a lot of promise, particularly because they can be employed as metallic implants with excellent mechanical properties. Besides allowing for patient customisation, powder-bed fusion of these alloys could help overcome their main drawback, i.e., slow degradation inside the human body, by increasing the component surface with inbuilt structural porosity. The quality of additive-manufactured products depends on their temperature history, making knowledge of the heat-transfer characteristics of the powder-bed fusion process very important. While accurate determinations of temperature gradients and the melt-pool sizes still represent a considerable challenge for all materials, this is particularly true for Fe–Mn alloys, where research is currently limited to a handful of pioneering works, and experimental determinations of the melt-pool contours prove extremely difficult and unreliable. To explore the origins of measurement inconsistency, melt-pool compositions of Fe–Mn specimens were analysed in the scope of this research. Concentric patterns of high- and low-Mn content practically indistinguishable from the melt-pool boundary on the macroscale were revealed within the melt-pool. A microscopic analysis of elemental content distribution was performed and the concentric patterns were attributed to the pronounced segregation of the alloy in conjunction with convective currents. A novel, calibration-free 3D finite-element model of heat transfer during laser powder-bed fusion is proposed to overcome these experimental difficulties and validated against the experimental melt-pool measurements.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. H. Hermawan, Biodegradable metals: from concept to applications (Springer Science & Business Media, New York, 2012)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  2. H. Hermawan, Updates on the research and development of absorbable metals for biomedical applications. Prog. Biomater. 7(2), 93–110 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. M.F. Ulum, W. Caesarendra, R. Alavi, H. Hermawan, In-vivo corrosion characterization and assessment of absorbable metal implants. Coatings 9(5), 282 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. K. Yang, C. Zhou, H. Fan, Y. Fan, Q. Jiang, P. Song et al., Bio-functional design, application and trends in metallic biomaterials. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19(1), 24 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. M. Prakasam, J. Locs, K. Salma-Ancane, D. Loca, A. Largeteau, L. Berzina-Cimdina, Biodegradable materials and metallic implants—a review. J. Funct. Biomater. 8(4), 44 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. M. Otto, S. Pilz, A. Gebert, U. Kühn, J. Hufenbach, Effect of build orientation on the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of a biodegradable high manganese steel processed by laser powder bed fusion. Metals 11(6), 944 (2021)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. J. Hufenbach, H. Wendrock, F. Kochta, U. Kühn, A. Gebert, Novel biodegradable Fe-Mn-CS alloy with superior mechanical and corrosion properties. Mater. Lett. 186, 330–333 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. A. Drynda, T. Hassel, F.W. Bach, M. Peuster, In vitro and in vivo corrosion properties of new iron-manganese alloys designed for cardiovascular applications. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 103(3), 649–660 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Č Donik, A. Kocijan, I. Paulin, M. Hočevar, P. Gregorčič, M. Godec, Improved biodegradability of Fe-Mn alloy after modification of surface chemistry and topography by a laser ablation. Appl. Surf. Sci. 453, 383–393 (2018)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  10. W.J. Lin, D.Y. Zhang, G. Zhang, H.T. Sun, H.P. Qi, L.P. Chen et al., Design and characterization of a novel biocorrodible iron-based drug-eluting coronary scaffold. Mater. Design 91, 72–79 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Y. Feng, N. Gaztelumendi, J. Fornell, H. Zhang, P. Solsona, M. Baró et al., Mechanical properties, corrosion performance and cell viability studies on newly developed porous Fe-Mn-Si-Pd alloys. J. Alloy. Compd. 724, 1046–1056 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. M. Badrossamay, T.H.C. Childs, Further studies in selective laser melting of stainless and tool steel powders. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufa. 47(5 SPEC. ISS.), 779–784 (2007)

  13. M.M. Francois, A. Sun, W.E. King, N.J. Henson, D. Tourret, C.A. Bronkhorst et al., Modeling of additive manufacturing processes for metals: challenges and opportunities. Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21(4), 198–206 (2017)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  14. N. Raghavan, R. Dehoff, S. Pannala, S. Simunovic, M. Kirka, J. Turner et al., Numerical modeling of heat-transfer and the influence of process parameters on tailoring the grain morphology of IN718 in electron beam additive manufacturing. Acta Mater. 112, 303–314 (2016)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  15. S.M. Thompson, L. Bian, N. Shamsaei, A. Yadollahi, An overview of direct laser deposition for additive manufacturing; part I: transport phenomena, modeling and diagnostics. Addit. Manuf. 8, 36–62 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  16. T. DebRoy, H. Wei, J. Zuback, T. Mukherjee, J. Elmer, J. Milewski et al., Additive manufacturing of metallic components-process, structure and properties. Prog. Mater Sci. 92, 112–224 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. A. Ilin, R. Logvinov, A. Kulikov, A. Prihodovsky, H. Xu, V. Ploshikhin et al., Computer aided optimisation of the thermal management during laser beam melting process. Phys. Proc. 56(C), 390–399 (2014)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  18. A. Foroozmehr, M. Badrossamay, E. Foroozmehr, S. Golabi, Finite element simulation of selective laser melting process considering optical penetration depth of laser in powder bed. Mater. Design 89, 255–263 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Y. Shu, D. Galles, O.A. Tertuliano, B.A. McWilliams, N. Yang, W. Cai et al., A critical look at the prediction of the temperature field around a laser-induced melt pool on metallic substrates. Sci. Rep. 11(1), 1–11 (2021)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. Y. Qin, P. Wen, H. Guo, D. Xia, Y. Zheng, L. Jauer et al., Additive manufacturing of biodegradable metals: current research status and future perspectives. Acta Biomater. 98, 3–22 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. H. Hermawan, D. Mantovani, Process of prototyping coronary stents from biodegradable Fe-Mn alloys. Acta Biomater. 9(10), 8585–8592 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. D. Carluccio, C. Xu, J. Venezuela, Y. Cao, D. Kent, M. Bermingham et al., Additively manufactured iron-manganese for biodegradable porous load-bearing bone scaffold applications. Acta Biomater. 103, 346–360 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. H. Hermawan, A. Purnama, D. Dube, J. Couet, D. Mantovani, Fe-Mn alloys for metallic biodegradable stents: degradation and cell viability studies. Acta Biomater. 6(5), 1852–1860 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. D. Hong, D.T. Chou, O.I. Velikokhatnyi, A. Roy, B. Lee, I. Swink et al., Binder-jetting 3D printing and alloy development of new biodegradable Fe-Mn-Ca/Mg alloys. Acta Biomater. 45, 375–386 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. J. Venezuela, M. Dargusch, Addressing the slow corrosion rate of biodegradable Fe-Mn: current approaches and future trends. Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 24(3), 100822 (2020)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  26. M. Schinhammer, A.C. Hänzi, J.F. Löffler, P.J. Uggowitzer, Design strategy for biodegradable Fe-based alloys for medical applications. Acta Biomater. 6(5), 1705–1713 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Č Donik, J. Kraner, A. Kocijan, I. Paulin, M. Godec, Evolution of the \(\varepsilon \) and \(\gamma \) phases in biodegradable Fe-Mn alloys produced using laser powder-bed fusion. Sci. Rep. 11(1), 1–10 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  28. T. Mede, A. Kocjan, I. Paulin, M. Godec, Numerical mesoscale modelling of microstructure evolution during selective laser melting. Metals 10(6), 800 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. EDF, Finite element code_aster, Analysis of structures and thermomechanics for studies and research, 1989–2017. Open source on

  30. G.B.M. Cervera, G. Lombera, Numerical prediction of temperature and density distributions in selective laser sintering processes. Rapid Prototyp. J. (1999)

  31. R.B. Patil, V. Yadava, Finite element analysis of temperature distribution in single metallic powder layer during metal laser sintering. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf 47(7–8), 1069–1080 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. J.J. Beaman, J.W. Barlow, D.L. Bourell, R.H. Crawford, H.L. Marcus, K.P. McAlea, Solid freeform fabrication: a new direction in manufacturing, vol 2061, pp. 25–49. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell (1997)

  33. D.A. Nield, A. Bejan et al., Convection in porous media. vol. 3. Springer (2006)

  34. H. Yang, Z. Li, S. Wang, The analytical prediction of thermal distribution and defect generation of Inconel 718 by selective laser melting. Appl. Sci. 10(20), 7300 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. J. Weirather, V. Rozov, M. Wille, P. Schuler, C. Seidel, N.A. Adams et al., A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for laser beam melting of Ni-based alloy 718. Comput. Math. Appl. 78(7), 2377–2394 (2019)

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  36. Y. Du, X. You, F. Qiao, L. Guo, Z. Liu, A model for predicting the temperature field during selective laser melting. Results Phys. 12, 52–60 (2019)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  37. M.A. Bramson, Infrared radiation. A handbook for applications. Opt. Phys. Eng. (1968)

  38. N.K. Tolochko , Y.V. Khlopkov, S.E. Mozzharov, M.B. Ignatiev, T. Laoui, V.I. Titov, Absorptance of powder materials suitable for laser sintering. Rapid Prototyp. J. (2000)

  39. Y. Lee, W. Zhang, Modeling of heat transfer, fluid flow and solidification microstructure of nickel-base superalloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion. Addit. Manuf. 12, 178–188 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  40. M.J. Ansari, D.S. Nguyen, H.S. Park, Investigation of SLM process in terms of temperature distribution and melting pool size: modeling and experimental approaches. Materials. 12(8) (2019)

  41. P. Fischer, V. Romano, H.P. Weber, N.P. Karapatis, E. Boillat, R. Glardon, Sintering of commercially pure titanium powder with a Nd:YAG laser source. Acta Mater. 51(6), 1651–1662 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  42. A. Zinoviev, O. Zinovieva, V. Ploshikhin, V. Romanova, R. Balokhonov, Evolution of grain structure during laser additive manufacturing. Simulation by a cellular automata method. Mater. Design 106, 321–329 (2016)

  43. J.A. Goldak, M. Akhlaghi, Computational welding mechanics. Springer Science & Business Media (2006)

  44. X. He, T. DebRoy, P. Fuerschbach, Alloying element vaporization during laser spot welding of stainless steel. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(23), 3079 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  45. P. Fischer, V. Romano, H.P. Weber, N. Karapatis, E. Boillat, R. Glardon, Sintering of commercially pure titanium powder with a Nd: YAG laser source. Acta Mater. 51(6), 1651–1662 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  46. D. Dai, D. Gu, Thermal behavior and densification mechanism during selective laser melting of copper matrix composites: simulation and experiments. Mater. Design 55, 482–491 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Y. Gao, J. Xing, J. Zhang, N. Luo, H. Zheng, Research on measurement method of selective laser sintering (SLS) transient temperature. Optik 119(13), 618–623 (2008)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  48. A. Hussein, L. Hao, C. Yan, R. Everson, Finite element simulation of the temperature and stress fields in single layers built without-support in selective laser melting. Mater. Design 52, 638–647 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. S. Kolossov, E. Boillat, R. Glardon, P. Fischer, M. Locher, 3D FE simulation for temperature evolution in the selective laser sintering process. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 44(2–3), 117–123 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. L. Ma, H. Bin, Temperature and stress analysis and simulation in fractal scanning-based laser sintering. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 34(9–10), 898–903 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. J. Yang, H. Yu, H. Yang, F. Li, Z. Wang, X. Zeng, Prediction of microstructure in selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy by cellular automaton. J. Alloy. Compd. 748, 281–290 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. M. Godec, S. Zaefferer, B. Podgornik, M. Šinko, E. Tchernychova, Quantitative multiscale correlative microstructure analysis of additive manufacturing of stainless steel 316L processed by selective laser melting. Mater. Charact. 160, 110074 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. B. Podgornik , M. Šinko, M. Godec, Dependence of the wear resistance of additive-manufactured maraging steel on the build direction and heat treatment. Addit. Manuf. 102123 (2021)

  54. R. Trivedi, W. Kurz, Theory of microstructural development during rapid solidification. In: Science and technology of the undercooled melt, pp. 260–267. Springer (1986)

  55. G. Marchese, M. Lorusso, S. Parizia, E. Bassini, J.W. Lee, F. Calignano et al., Influence of heat treatments on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Inconel 625 processed by laser powder bed fusion. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 729, 64–75 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. H. Azizi, H. Zurob, B. Bose, S.R. Ghiaasiaan, X. Wang, S. Coulson et al., Additive manufacturing of a novel Ti-Al-V-Fe alloy using selective laser melting. Addit. Manuf. 21, 529–535 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  57. Thermo-Calc Documentation Set, version 2021b. Accessed 21 June 2021

  58. M.C. Jo, H. Lee, A. Zargaran, J.H. Ryu, S.S. Sohn, N.J. Kim et al., Exceptional combination of ultra-high strength and excellent ductility by inevitably generated Mn-segregation in austenitic steel. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 737, 69–76 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Z. Gan, Y. Lian, S.E. Lin, K.K. Jones, W.K. Liu, G.J. Wagner, Benchmark study of thermal behavior, surface topography, and dendritic microstructure in selective laser melting of Inconel 625. Integr. Mater. Manuf. Innov. 8(2), 178–193 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. W.E. King, A.T. Anderson, R.M. Ferencz, N.E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S.A. Khairallah et al., Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges. Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(4), 041304 (2015)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  61. Lyle BL LE, Ambench2018-description.

Download references


We would like to thank Jakob Kraner for performing the LPBF fabrication of samples and Tina Sever for the metallographic sample preparation and microscopy. Credit also goes to Črtomir Donik for his help with the EDS mappings. All the constructive comments by the unknown reviewer are greatly appreciated.


The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency (research project funding No. J2-1729 and core funding No. P2-0132).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tijan Mede.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix A: Numerical model validation

Appendix A: Numerical model validation

To test the accuracy of the developed numerical model, it was applied to the experimental configurations used in the AMB2018-02 additive manufacturing benchmark test series [61]. The experiment consisted of multiple single-track scans performed on an Inconel 625 bare plate (no powder), using NIST EOS M270 powder-bed fusion system. A 1070 nm continuous wave laser with beam diameter of 100 \(\upmu \)m was used, where beam diameter is defined as the width of the beam at which the Gaussian beam intensity drops to 1/\(e^2\) (\(\sim \)13.5%). Three different configurations were tested: case A with laser power \(P=150\) W and scanning speed of \(v=400\) \(\mathrm {mm \, s^{-1}}\), case‘ B with laser power \(P=195\) W and scanning speed of \(v=800\) \(\mathrm {mm \, s^{-1}}\), and case C with laser power \(P=195\) W and scanning speed of \(v=1200\) \(\mathrm {mm \, s^{-1}}\). Laser tracks were cross-sectioned perpendicular to the laser track and measured using optical microscopy.

Table 2 Simulated and experimental values of the melt-pool dimensions for the AMB2018-02 benchmark series

The temperature-dependent material parameters of Inconel 625 were obtained using JMatPro software and identical procedure as described in Sect. 2.2 was applied to perform the simulations. The mean measurements of the melt-pool dimensions as well as the simulated values are presented in Table 2. While the numerical model is observed to capture the measured melt-pool widths relatively well, the simulated melt-pool widths are notably amplified. Nevertheless, the accuracy of these simulated results is well in line with the current state-of-the-art approaches [59], using no prior calibration.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mede, T., Kocjan, A., Paulin, I. et al. Laser powder-bed fusion of biodegradable Fe–Mn alloy: melt-pool solidification. Appl. Phys. A 128, 739 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: