Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate using spin-coating techniques and as-deposited films were sensitized with various dyes. A series of azo derivatives (2, 5a-b) having different structures were successfully prepared through the process of the azo coupling reaction. KAZO 6 was successfully synthesized by esterification of kojic acid obtained from sago waste with azo 5a. These azo dye were examined using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) to obtain the vertical excitation, electron distribution, energy levels, band gap, and light-harvesting efficiency in the ground and excited state. The obtained values exhibited a good correlation with the experimental values. Efficiency enhancement was reported by the incorporation of KAZO 6 with curcumin extracted from turmeric. Spectroscopy and optical properties of synthesized dyes were characterized using CHNS elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV–Vis spectroscopies. KAZO 6 displayed an efficiency of 1.59% compared to azo derivatives 0.13–1.12%. The efficiency of KAZO 6 enhanced from 1.59 to 1.74% with the incorporation of turmeric dye.
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The authors would like to acknowledge Tianjin University for providing startup research fund. This work was also supported by Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation under F07/FRGS/1883/2019 and FRGS/ST01 (01)/1298/2015(15).
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Kashif, M., Ngaini, Z., Harry, A.V. et al. An experimental and DFT study on novel dyes incorporated with natural dyes on titanium dioxide (TiO2) towards solar cell application. Appl. Phys. A 126, 716 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-020-03896-6
- Azo derivatives
- KAZO 6