Advertisement

Applied Physics A

, 123:80 | Cite as

On the conservation of easel paintings: evaluation of microbial contamination and artists materials

  • Cátia Salvador
  • Rui Bordalo
  • Mara Silva
  • Tânia Rosado
  • António Candeias
  • Ana Teresa Caldeira
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Innovation in Art Research and Technology

Abstract

Easel paintings have been considered one of the most important art expressions, constituting today outstanding works of art with important historic and cultural value. Unfortunately, due to the presence of several organic materials, these artworks have been affected by microbial contamination that among other factors can be responsible for different aesthetic and structural alterations. For this study, four easel paintings from the late nineteenth century by Giorgio Marini with evident chromatic and structural alterations due to biocontamination were analysed in order to better understand the materials used and the source of high microbial contamination within a focused conservation intervention process. For this end, both the biofilms and the painting materials were characterised by several analytical techniques. Fungal communities were found to prevail in areas with evident structural and aesthetic damages, which were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analyses that allowed the observation of the fungal hyphae proliferation capacity. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, μ-X-ray diffraction, μ-Raman, μ-FTIR and optical microscopy were used to further identify the painting materials. Immunological assays revealed the presence of a mixture of proteins of ovalbumin, collagen and casein, suggesting that the presence of these proteinaceous materials in these paintings is one of the main reasons of microbial biofilms appearance on the painting’s surface. These approaches contribute for a better knowledge of these artworks providing at the same time relevant information for the ongoing conservation–restoration intervention.

Keywords

Ground Layer Rose Bengal Paint Layer Proteinaceous Material Cerussite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the HIT3CH project—HERCULES Interface for Technology Transfer and Teaming in Cultural Heritage (ALT20-03-0246-FEDER-000004) and MEDUSA project—“Microorganisms Monitoring and Mitigation—Developing and Unlocking Novel Sustainable Approaches” (ALT20-03-0145-FEDER-000015), co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and ALENTEJO 2020 (Alentejo Regional Operational Programme). R. Bordalo also acknowledges Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia for a postdoctoral fellowship (SFRH/BPD/85259).

References

  1. 1.
    J. Arslanoglu, J. Schultz, J. Loike, K. Peterson, Immunology and art: using antibody-based techniques to identify proteins and gums in artworks. J. Biosci. 35(1), 3–10 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H.E. Ahmed, F.N. Kolisis, A study on using of protease for removal of animal glue adhesive in textile conservation. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 124, 3565–3576 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Capodicasa, S. Fedi, A.M. Porcelli, D. Zannoni, The microbial community dwelling on a biodeteriorated 16th century painting. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 64(8), 727–733 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Elias, N. Mas, P. Cotte, Review of several optical non-destructive analyses of an easel painting. Complementarity and crosschecking of the results. J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 335–345 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Albertini, L. Raggi, M. Vagnini, A. Sassolini, A. Achilli, G. Marconi, L. Cartechini, F. Veronesi, M. Falcinelli, B. Brunetti, C. Miliani, Tracing the biological origin of animal glues used in paintings through mitochondrial DNA analysis. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399, 2987–2995 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B.H. Stuart, Analytical Techniques in Materials Conservation (Wiley, London, 2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Palmieri, M. Vagnini, L. Pitzurra, P. Rocchi, B. Brunetti, A. Sgamellotti, L. Cartechini, Development of an analytical protocol for a fast, sensitive and specific protein recognition in paintings by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399, 3011–3023 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Lluveras, I. Bonaduce, A. Andreotti, M.P. Colombini, GC/MS analytical procedure for the characterization of glycerolipids, natural waxes, terpenoid resins, proteinaceous and polysaccharide materials in the same paint microsample avoiding interferences from inorganic media. Anal. Chem. 82, 376–386 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.G. Kazarian, K.L.A. Chan, ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging: recent advances and applications to biological systems. Analyst 138, 1940–1951 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Sciutto, L.S. Dolci, M. Guardigli, M. Zangheri, S. Prati, R. Mazzco, A. Roda, Single and multiplexed immunoassays for the chemiluminescent imaging detection of animal glues in historical paint cross-sections. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(2–3), 933–940 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Cartechini, M. Vagnini, M. Palmieri, L. Pitzurra, T. Mello, J. Mazurek, G. Chiari, Immunodetection of proteins in ancient paint media. Acc. Chem. Res. 43, 867–876 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Tokarski, E. Martin, C. Rolando, C. Cren-Olivé, Identification of proteins in renaissance paintings by proteomics. Anal. Chem. 78(5), 1494–1502 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Schultz, K. Petersen, Antibody-Based Techniques to Distinguish Proteins and Identify Sturgeon Glue in Works of Art, in Proceedings of Symposium 2011Adhesives and Consolidants for Conservation (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    T. Rosado, M. Gil, A.T. Caldeira, M.R. Martins, C. Dias, L. Carvalho, J. Mirão, A. Candeias, Material characterization and biodegradation assessment of mural paintings: renaissance Frescoes from Santo Aleixo Church, Southern Portugal. Int. J. Archit. Herit. 8(6), 835–852 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Salvador, M. Silva, T. Rosado, R.V. Freire, R. Bordalo, A. Candeias, A.T. Caldeira, Biodeterioration of easel paintings: development of new mitigation strategies. Conserv. Patrim. 23, 119–124 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Salvador, M.R. Martins, J.M. Arteiro, A.T. Caldeira, Molecular evaluation of some Amanita ponderosa and the fungal strains living in association with these mushrooms in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. Ann. Microbiol. 64, 1179–1187 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Domsch, W. Gams, T. Anderson, Compendium of Soil Fungi, vol. 1 (Academic Press, London, 1980)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.M. Crous, G.J.M. Verkley, J.Z. Groenewald, R.A. Samson (eds.) Fungal Biodiversity. CBS Laboratory Manual Series, ed. by P.M. Crous and R.A. Samson (CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, 2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Bordalo, C. Bottaini, C. Moricca, A. Candeias, Material Characterisation of a Florentine painter in Portugal in the Late 19th century: paintings by Giorgio Marini. Int. J. Conserv. Sci. 7(4), 967–980 (2016)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. Salvador, A. Branco, A. Candeias, A.T. Caldeira, Innovative approaches for immunodetection of proteic binders in art. E-Conserv. J. (in press) (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.M. Bradford, A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72, 248–254 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Salvador, M.R. Martins, M.F. Candeias, A. Karmali, J.M. Arteiro, A.T. Caldeira, Characterization and biological activities of protein-bound polysaccharides produced by cultures of pleurotus ostreatus. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. A 2, 1296–1306 (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Arteiro, M. Martins, C. Salvador, M. Candeias, K.A.A. Caldeira, Protein-polysaccharides of trametes versicolor: production and biological activities. Med. Chem. Res. 21(6), 937–943 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Libjaková, S. Bystrický, I. Lizicárová, E. Paulovicová, E. Machová, Evaluation of different mannan polysaccharide usage in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific antibodies determination. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 45, 521–525 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Karmali, P. Oliveira, Glucose 1- and 2-oxidases from fungal strains: isolation and production of monoclonal antibodies. J. Biotechnol. 69, 151–162 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. Salvador, A. Branco, A. Fialho, M. Semedo, S. Martins, M.F. Candeias, A. Candeias, A.T. Caldeira, A. Karmali, in Science, Technology and Cultural Heritage, ed. by M.A. Rogerio-Candelera. Detection of proteic binders in easel paintings using monoclonal antibodies, (CRC Press/Balkema Taylor & Francis Group, London, 2014), pp. 329–334Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Martins, A. Karmali, J. Andrade, A. Custódio, M.L. Serralheiro, Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against altered (T103I) amidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mol. Biotechnol. 30, 207–219 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Martins, A. Karmali, M. Serralheiro, Chromatographic behaviour of monoclonal antibodies against wild -type amidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa on immobilized metal chelates. Biomed. Chromatogr. 25, 1327–1337 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Rosado, A. Reis, J. Mirão, A. Candeias, P. Vandenabeele, A.T. Caldeira, Pink! Why not? On the unusual colour of Évora Cathedral. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 94, 121–127 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. Rosado, M. Silva, C. Pereira, J. Mirão, A. Candeias, A.T. Caldeira, Gilded woodcarving alteration: assessment of filamentous fungi action. Int. J. Conserv. Sci. 6 (Special Issue) 499–506 (2015)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. Rosado, J. Mirao, A. Candeias, A.T. Caldeira, Microbial communities analysis assessed by pyrosequencing-a new approach applied to conservation state studies of mural paintings. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(3), 887–895 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M.P. Nugari, A.M. Pietrini, G. Caneva, F. Imperi, P. Visca, Biodeterioration of mural paintings in a rocky habitat: the Crypt of the Original Sin (Matera, Italy). Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 63(6), 705–711 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Sterflinger, Fungi: their role in deterioration of cultural heritage. Fungal Biol. Rev. 24(1–2), 47–55 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Lopez-Miras, G. Pinar, J. Romero-Noguera, F.C. Bolivar-Galiano, J. Ettenauer, K. Sterflinger, I. Martin-Sanchez, Microbial communities adhering to the obverse and reverse sides of an oil painting on canvas: identification and evaluation of their biodegradative potential. Aerobiologia (Bologna) 29(2), 301–314 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    O. Pepe, S. Palomba, L. Sannino, G. Blaiotta, V. Ventorino, G. Moschetti, F. Villani, Characterization in the archaeological excavation site of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi of deteriorated wall painting of Herculaneum in Italy. J. Environ. Biol. 32, 241–250 (2011)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. Sterflinger, G. Pinar, Microbial deterioration of cultural heritage and works of art-tilting at windmills? Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 97(22), 9637–9646 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    A.B. Strzelczyk, Observations on aesthetic and structural changes induced in Polish historic objects by microorganisms. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 53(3), 151–156 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    I.M. Bell, R.J.H. Clark, P.J. Gibbs, Raman spectroscopic library of natural and synthetic pigments (pre- ≈ 1850 AD). Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53(12), 2159–2179 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Derrick, D. Stulik, J.M. Landru, Infrared Spectroscopy in Conservation (The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cátia Salvador
    • 1
  • Rui Bordalo
    • 1
  • Mara Silva
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tânia Rosado
    • 1
  • António Candeias
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana Teresa Caldeira
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.HERCULES LaboratoryUniversity of ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal
  2. 2.Chemistry Department, School of Sciences and TechnologyUniversity of ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal

Personalised recommendations