The comparative study of four Portuguese sixteenth-century illuminated Manueline Charters based on spectroscopy and chemometrics analysis

Abstract

The comparative study based on spectroscopic analysis of the materials used to produce four sixteenth-century Manueline Charters (the Charters of Alcochete, Terena, Alandroal and Évora) was performed following a systematic analytical approach. SEM–EDS, μ-Raman and μ-FTIR analysis highlighted interesting features between them, namely the use of different pigments and colourants (such as different green and yellow pigments), the presence of pigments alterations and the use of a non-expected extemporaneous material (with the presence of titanium white in the Charter of Alcochete). Principal component analysis restricted to the C–H absorption region (3000–2840 cm−1) was applied to 36 infrared spectra of blue historical samples from the Charters of Alcochete, Terena, Alandroal and Évora, suggesting the use of a mixture of a triglyceride and polysaccharide as binder.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

References

  1. 1.

    J.M. Branco, M.M. Lina, C. Miguel, C. Dias, L. Dias, and A. Candeias, Forais Manuelinos. Juromenha-Alandroal-Terena (1512–1516) (Edições Colibri, Lisboa, 2015)

  2. 2.

    J.M. Garcia, Os Forais Novos do reinado de D (Lisboa, Manuel I (Colecção do Banco de Portugal, 2009)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    M. Clarke, E-Conserv. J. 2, 10–16 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    L. Moura, M.J. Melo, C. Casanova, A. Claro, J Cult. Herit. 8, 299–306 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    A. Candeias, A. Claro, A. Fialho, C. Dias, S. Valadas, T. Ferreira, and J. Oliveira (coord.), O Foral Manuelino de Marvãocontexto, leitura e estudo material (IBN—Revista Cultural do Conselho de Marvão, Marvão, 2012)

  6. 6.

    M.J.M.M Brigote Chorão, C. Candeias, A Lousã e os seus forais (Câmara Municipal da Lousã, Lousã, 2013)

  7. 7.

    M. Manso, A. Le Gac, S. Longelin, S. Pessanha, J.C. Frade, M. Guerra, A. Candeias, M.L. Carvalho, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 105, 288–296 (2013)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    A. Le Gac, S. Pessanha, S. Longelin, M. Guerra, J.C. Frade, F. Lourenço, M.C. Serrano, M. Manso, M.L. Carvalho, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 82, 242–257 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    C. Miguel, C. Dias, L. Dias, M. Beltrame, and A. Candeias, in Foral de Alcochete e Aldeia Galega17 de Janeiro de 1515, coord. By Museu Municipal de Alcochete (Museu Municipal de Alcochete, Alcochete, 2015)

  10. 10.

    C. Miguel, J.A. Lopes, M. Clarke, M.J. Melo, Chemometr. Intell. Lab. 119, 32–38 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    M.P. Merrifield, Medieval and Renaissance Treatises on the Arts of Painting (Dover Publications, London, 1999)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    D.V. Thomson, The Craftsman’s Handbook ‘Il libro dell’Arte’ by Cennino d’A Cennini (Dover Publications, New York, 1960)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    F. Brunello, De Arte Illuminandi e Altri tratatti sulla tecnica della miniatura medievale (Neri Pozza Editore, Vicenza, 1992)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    R.L. Frost, S. Bahfenne, E.C. Keeffe, J. Raman Spectrosc. 41, 1779–1783 (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    H.G.M. Howards, D.W. Farwell, E.M. Newton, F.R. Perez, Analyst 124, 1323–1326 (1999)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    S. Rada, A. Dehelean, E. Culea, J. Mol. Model. 17, 2103–2111 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    C.N.R. Rao, H.S. Randhawa, N.V.R. Reddy, D. Chakravorty, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 31(9–10), 1283–1291 (1975)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    I. Shaltout, Y. Badr, J. Mater. Sci. 40(13), 3367–3373 (2005)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2004)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    E. Mattei, G. Vivo, A. de Santis, C. Gaetani, C. Pelosi, U. Santamaria, Raman Spectrosc. 39(2), 302–306 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    R.L. Frost, W.N. Martens, L. Rintoul, E. Mahmutagic, J.T. Kloprogge, J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(4), 252–259 (2002)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    M. Derrick, D. Stulik, J.M. Landru, Infrared Spectroscopy in Conservation (The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 1999)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    W.N. Martens, R.L. Frost, J.T. Kloprogge, P.A. Williams, J. Raman Spectrosc. 34(2), 104–111 (2003)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    B. Gilbert, S. Denoël, G. Weber, D. Allart, Analyst 128, 1213–1217 (2003)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    P. Ricciardi, A. Pallipurath, K. Rose, Anal. Methods 5, 3819–3824 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    R.J.H. Clark, L. Cridland, B.M. Kariuki, K. D. M. Harris, and R. Withnall, J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans 16, 2577–2582 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    H.G.M. Howards, Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 80(1), 14–20 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    N. Eastaugh, V. Walsh, T. Chaplin, R. Siddall, The Pigment Compendium—A Dictionary of Historical Pigments (Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Burlington, 2004)

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    M.P. Colombini, F. Modugno, Organic Mass Spectrometry in Art and Archaeology (Wiley, Chichester, 2009)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by UID/Multi/04449/2013 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007649) project. Catarina Miguel thanks the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia for financial support under grant SFRH/BPD/92865/2013. The authors would like to acknowledge Ana Manhita from HERCULES Lab for the preliminary Py-GC/MS results and to Câmara Municipal de Alcochete, Câmara Municipal do Alandroal and Câmara Municipal de Évora for the study of the Charters.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Catarina Miguel.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 7275 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Miguel, C., Barrocas-Dias, C., Ferreira, T. et al. The comparative study of four Portuguese sixteenth-century illuminated Manueline Charters based on spectroscopy and chemometrics analysis. Appl. Phys. A 123, 72 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-016-0659-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Blue Paint
  • Green Paint
  • Cochineal
  • Methyl Indole
  • Brochantite