Skip to main content

A novel NO2 gas sensor based on Hall effect operating at room temperature


Tungsten trioxide nanoparticles were obtained by a simple thermal oxidation approach. The structural and morphological properties of these nanoparticles are investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. A WO3 thick film was deposited on the four Au electrodes to be a WO3 Hall effect sensor. The sensor was tested between magnetic field in a plastic test chamber. Room-temperature nitrogen dioxide sensing characteristics of Hall effect sensor were studied for various concentration levels of nitrogen dioxide at dry air and humidity conditions. A typical room-temperature response of 3.27 was achieved at 40 ppm of NO2 with a response and recovery times of 36 and 45 s, respectively. NO2 gas sensing mechanism of Hall effect sensor was also studied. The room-temperature operation, with the low deposition cost of the sensor, suggests suitability for developing a low-power cost-effective nitrogen dioxide sensor.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. T. Siyama, A. Kato, A new detector for gaseous components using semiconductor thin film. Anal. Chem. 34, 1502–1503 (1962)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. N. Yamazoe, G. Sakai, K. Shimanoe, Oxide semiconductor gas sensors. Catal. Surv. Asia 7, 63–75 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. S. Sarfraz, R.V. Kumar, Ultrasonically assisted synthesis of mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticle thin films via sol-gel process for chemo-resistive gas sensor applications. Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), 2014 11th International Bhurban Conference on, IEEE2014, pp. 48–51

  4. J. Yoo, S. Chatterjee, E.D. Wachsman, Sensing properties and selectivities of a WO 3/YSZ/Pt potentiometric NO x sensor. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 122, 644–652 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. R. Toniolo, N. Dossi, A. Pizzariello, A.P. Doherty, G. Bontempelli, A membrane free amperometric gas sensor based on room temperature ionic liquids for the selective monitoring of NOx. Electroanalysis 24, 865–871 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. J.H. Choi, S.J. Kim, Capacitive-type Hydrogen gas sensor using Ta2O5 as sensitive layer, J. Korean Inst. Electr. Electron. Mater. Eng. 26 (2013)

  7. B. Renganathan, D. Sastikumar, G. Gobi, N.R. Yogamalar, A.C. Bose, Nanocrystalline ZnO coated fiber optic sensor for ammonia gas detection. Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 1398–1404 (2011)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. C. Lim, W. Wang, S. Yang, K. Lee, Development of SAW-based multi-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of CO2 and NO2. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 154, 9–16 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. N. Barsan, D. Koziej, U. Weimar, Metal oxide-based gas sensor research: how to? Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121, 18–35 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. J. Tamaki, T. Hashishin, Y. Uno, D.V. Dao, S. Sugiyama, Ultrahigh-sensitive WO3 nanosensor with interdigitated Au nano-electrode for NO2 detection. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 132, 234–238 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. W.H. Zhang, W.D. Zhang, L.Y. Chen, Highly sensitive detection of explosive triacetone triperoxide by an In2O3 sensor. Nanotechnology 21, 315502 (2010)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. E.R. Waclawik, J. Chang, A. Ponzoni, I. Concina, D. Zappa, E. Comini et al., Functionalised zinc oxide nanowire gas sensors: enhanced NO(2) gas sensor response by chemical modification of nanowire surfaces. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 3, 368–377 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. U. Weimar, W. Göpel, AC measurements on tin oxide sensors to improve selectivities and sensitivities. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 26, 13–18 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. J. Liu, Y. Zhao, Z. Zhang, Low-temperature synthesis of large-scale arrays of aligned tungsten oxide nanorods. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15, L453 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  15. J.M. Wu, A room temperature ethanol sensor made from p-type Sb-doped SnO2 nanowires. Nanotechnology 21, 235501 (2010)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  16. Z. Liu, T. Yamazaki, Y. Shen, T. Kikuta, N. Nakatani, T. Kawabata, Room temperature gas sensing of p-type TeO2 nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 173119 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  17. E.H. Hall, On a new action of the magnet on electric currents. Am. J. Math. 2, 287–292 (1879)

    Article  MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  18. S.O. Kasap, Hall effect in semiconductors: an e-booklet, vol. 1 (Web-Materials, 2001), pp. 1–8

  19. K. Seeger, Semiconductor Physics (Springer, New York, 2013)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  20. T. Kida, A. Nishiyama, M. Yuasa, K. Shimanoe, N. Yamazoe, Highly sensitive NO2 sensors using lamellar-structured WO3 particles prepared by an acidification method. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 135, 568–574 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61306071) and the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2015J05117).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. Y. Lin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lin, J.Y., Xie, W.M., He, X.L. et al. A novel NO2 gas sensor based on Hall effect operating at room temperature. Appl. Phys. A 122, 801 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Hall Coefficient
  • Tungsten Trioxide
  • Hall Voltage
  • Hall Effect Sensor
  • Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticles