Pb distribution in bones from the Franklin expedition: synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and laser ablation/mass spectroscopy
- 556 Downloads
Synchrotron micro-X-ray Fluorescence has been used to map the metal distribution in selected bone fragments representative of remains associated with the Franklin expedition. In addition, laser ablation mass spectroscopy using a 25 μm diameter circular spot was employed to compare the Pb isotope distributions in small regions within the bone fragments. The X-ray Fluorescence mapping shows Pb to be widely distributed in the bone while the Pb isotope ratios obtained by laser ablation within small areas representative of bone with different Pb exchange rates do not show statistically significant differences. These results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that faulty solder seals in tinned meat were the principle source of Pb in the remains of the expedition personnel.
KeywordsIsotope Ratio Bone Sample Individual Bone National Synchrotron Light Source Tinned Meat
Work supported in part by the U S Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. The US Department of Energy, Office of Science, and Office of Basic Energy Sciences supported use of the National Synchrotron Light Source.
Additional funding was supplied by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).
- 1.O.B. Beattie, J. Geiger, Frozen in Time: The Fate of the Franklin Expedition (Bloomsbury, London, 1987) Google Scholar
- 2.F.L. M’Clintock, Fate of Sir John Franklin: The Voyage of the Fox in the Arctic Seas in Search of Franklin and His Companions, 5th edn. (Murray, London, 1881) Google Scholar
- 3.W.G. Ross, Arctic 55, 57–69 (2002) Google Scholar
- 5.R. Amy, R. Bhatnagar, E. Damkjar, O. Beattie, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 135(2), 115–117 (1986) Google Scholar
- 7.B. Ranford, Equinox 69, 46–53 (1993) Google Scholar
- 8.B. Ranford, Equinox 74, 69–87 (1994) Google Scholar
- 11.O.B. Beattie, Muskox 33, 68–77 (1983) Google Scholar
- 12.O.B. Beattie, J.M. Savelle, Hist. Archaeol. 17(2), 100–105 (1983) Google Scholar
- 16.J.J. Pritchard, Bones Carolina Biology Readers, vol. 47 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1972), pp. 2–16 Google Scholar
- 17.R. McNeill Alexander, Human Bones—A Scientific and Pictorial Investigation (PI Press, New York, 2005), pp. 13–15 Google Scholar
- 21.W.I. Manton, Br. J. Ind. Med. 42, 168–172 (1985) Google Scholar
- 27.A.C. Todd, P.J. Parsons, S. Tang, E.L. Mochier, Environ. Health Perspect. 109(11), 1130–1143 (2001) Google Scholar
- 29.F. Facchetti, P. Gaglione, A. Colombo, G. Garibaldi, G. Spallanzani, G. Gilli, Isotopic Pb experiment-status report. EUR 7352, EN. Commission of European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Ispra Establishment (1982) Google Scholar
- 33.L. Torrisi, F. Caridi, L. Giuffrida, A. Borrielli A, G. Mondio, in 36th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, vol. 33E, Sofia, June 29–July 3 (2009), pp. 2–105 Google Scholar
- 35.J.M. Parish, The Stirrup Court cemetery: an examination of health in nineteenth-century Ontario. Masters thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Western, Ontario, London, Canada (2000) Google Scholar
- 37.J.H. Freeland, R.J. Cousins, R. Schwartz, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29(7), 745–749 (1976) Google Scholar