A mathematical model to predict the grain size of nanocrystalline CdS thin films based on the deposition condition used in the sol–gel spin coating method
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Design of experiment (DOE) based on central composite design (CCD) has been employed for the development of a mathematical model correlating the important process parameters like thiourea concentration (U), annealing temperature (A), rotational speed (S), and annealing time (T) of the spin coating process for the preparation of CdS thin films. The experiments were conducted as per the design matrix. Nanocrystalline CdS thin films have been prepared using cadmium nitrate and thiourea as precursors by sol gel spin coating method using the results of the mathematical model. The prepared CdS films have been characterized and the crystal structure and grain size of the samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique. The adequacy of the developed models was checked by analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The accuracy of prediction has been carried out by conducting confirmation test. Using this model, the main effect of process parameters on grain size of CdS films have been studied. These parameters were optimized to obtain minimum grain size using the Microsoft excel solver. The results have been verified by depositing CdS films using the optimized conditions. These films have been characterized using X-ray diffraction technique and the grain size is found to be 8.8 nm. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis showed the grain size of the prepared CdS film to be ∼7 nm. UV–vis spectroscopy analysis revealed that CdS films exhibited quantum confinement effect.
KeywordsThiourea Central Composite Design Spin Coating Process Thiourea Concentration Close Space Sublimation
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