Increased temperature mitigates the effects of ocean acidification on the calcification of juvenile Pocillopora damicornis, but at a cost
This study tested the interactive effects of increased seawater temperature and CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) on the photochemistry, bleaching, and early growth of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis. New recruits were maintained at ambient or high temperature (29 or 30.8 °C) and pCO2 (~ 500 and ~ 1100 μatm) in a full-factorial experiment for 3 weeks. Neither a sharp decline in photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) nor evident bleaching was observed at high temperature and/or high pCO2. Furthermore, elevated temperature greatly promoted lateral growth and calcification, while polyp budding exhibited temperature-dependent responses to pCO2. High pCO2 depressed calcification by 28% at ambient temperature, but did not impact calcification at 30.8 °C. Interestingly, elevated temperature in concert with high pCO2 significantly retarded the budding process. These results suggest that increased temperature can mitigate the adverse effects of acidification on the calcification of juvenile P. damicornis, but at a substantial cost to asexual budding.
KeywordsAcidification Temperature Calcification Budding Trade-off Pocillopora damicornis
This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1301232 and 41206140), Science and Technology Service Network Initiative (KFJ-EW-STS-123) and Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (2014B030301064). We are grateful to Dr. Paul Cooper and the reviewers for their valuable and constructive comments that vastly improved the manuscript.
- Gattuso J-P, Magnan A, Billé R, Cheung WWL, Howes EL, Joos F, Allemand D, Bopp L, Cooley SR, Eakin CM, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Kelly RP, Pörtner H-O, Rogers AD, Baxter JM, Laffoley D, Osborn D, Rankovic A, Rochette J, Sumaila UR, Treyer S, Turley C (2015) Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO2 emissions scenarios. Science 349:aac742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoadley KD, Pettay DT, Grottoli AG, Cai W-J, Melman TF, Schoepf V, Hu X, Li Q, Xu H, Wang Y, Matsui Y, Baumann JH, Warner ME (2015b) Physiological response to elevated temperature and pCO2 varies across four Pacific coral species: understanding the unique host+symbiont response. Sci Rep 5:18371CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hoadley KD, Pettay DT, Grottoli AG, Cai W-J, Melman TF, Levas S, Schoepf V, Ding Q, Yuan X, Wang Y, Matsui Y, Baumann JH, Warner ME (2016b) High-temperature acclimation strategies within the thermally tolerant endosymbiont Symbiodinium trenchii and its coral host, Turbinaria reniformis, differ with changing pCO2 and nutrients. Mar Biol 163:134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Inoue M, Shinmen K, Kawahata H, Nakamura T, Tanaka Y, Kato A, Shinzato C, Iguchi A, Kan H, Suzuki A (2012) Estimate of calcification responses to thermal and freshening stresses based on culture experiments with symbiotic and aposymbiotic primary polyps of a coral, Acropora digitifera. Glob Planet Change 92–93:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhou GW (2011) Study on diversity of Symbiodinium and flexibility in scleractinian coral-algal symbiosis. Ph.D. thesis, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, p 127Google Scholar